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Agronomy Section
The National Dairy Research Institute had initiated Farm Management section that was the part of Animal Nutrition Division and thereafter it was named as Forage Section in the year 2000. Finally it was again renamed as Forage Research and Management Centre that came into existence in 2010 with the following objectives:
  1. To generate the human resource in Forage Agronomy.
  2. To develop the agro-techniques for enhancing the fodder productivity and quality through efficient management of resources.
  3. To disseminate the knowledge about new agro-techniques for forage crop production and management to the dairy farmers/extension functionaries.

The Forage Research and Management Centre has started post graduate programme in M.Sc. Agronomy (Forage Production) in 2010 and doctoral programme in Ph.D. Agronomy (Forage Production) in 2014. The students are acquainted with the recent developments in Agronomy and resource management covering major fields viz. crop husbandry, conservation and utilization of different fodder crops, Agroforestry and Agrostology, Soil fertility management, water management, weed management, plant nutrition and sustainability, Integrated nutrient management, Cropping Systems,Dry farming, Farming systems, Integrated farming systems and fodder seed production agronomy etc. Accordingly the syllabus has been structured for above teaching programmes almost similar to other ICAR institutes/Agricultural Universities. To impart the research training to the students it has been also emphasized from these areas which will help in supply of high forage biomass and better quality fodder to the animals in different seasons including scarcity period in particular with efficient resource management and sustainability.


The following vision/strategies of FR&MC are given for enhancement of yield and quality of fodder, human resource generation and dissemination of knowledge.

  • Increasing fodder productivity through efficient nutrient management.
  • Optimization of fodder productivity through efficient water management.
  • Improved techniques for increasing the fodder seed production.
  • Adoption and popularization of fodder conservation techniques for scarcity period.
  • Balanced nutrition to animals through improved cropping systems.
  • Sustainable fodder production through conservation agriculture.
  • To generate the human resources in Forage Agronomy through teaching and imparting the practical training.
Syllabus

M.Sc. Agronomy

Major Subjects:                           Agronomy

Semester-1

Sr.No.    Course No.                                 Title of Course Credit hours
1 FP-611                   Modern Concept in Crop Production                                             3+0
2 FP-612                   Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management                                        2+1
3 FP-613                  Principles and Practices of Water Management                            2+1
4 FP-614                  Agronomy of Forage Crops                                                           2+1

Semester-2

Sr.No.    Course No.                                 Title of Course Credit hours
1 FP-621                  Principles and Practices of Weed management                                                                  2+1
2 FP-622                   Seed Production Agronomy                                                            2+1
3 FP-623                 Grassland and Pasture Management                                               2+1
4 FP-624                 Crop Ecology and crop Physiology                                                3+0

Minor Subjects:                           Animal Nutrition

Semester-1

Sr.No.    Course No.                                 Title of Course Credit hours
1 AN-613                  Feed and Forage for Livestock                                           2+2
Semester-2
2 AN-625           Principles and practices of Animal Nutrition                                                          2+1

Supporting Subject:                          

Semester-1

Sr.No.    Course No.                                 Title of Course Credit hours
1 SS-611                  Concept of Soil Science                                 2+1
Semester-2
1 ES-628          Design of Experiments                                                                                                                      3+1
2 FP-619           Seminar                                                                                                                      

FP-611:    Modern Concepts in Crop Production                                  3+0

Theory:
Crop growth analysis in relation to environment; agro-ecological zones of India.

Quantitative agro-biological principles and inverse yield nitrogen law; Mitscherlich yield equation, its interpretation and applicability; Baule unit.

Effect of lodging in cereals, optimization of plant population and plkanting geometry in relation to different resources. Concept of ideal plant type and crop modelling for desired crop yield.
Scientific principles of crop production, crop response production functions, concept of soil-plant relations, yield and environmental stress.

Integrated farming systems, organic farming and resource conservation technology including
Modern concept of tillage, dry farming. Determining the nutrient needs for yield potentiality of crop plants, concept of balanced nutrition and integrated nutrient management, precision agriculture. 

FP-612:     Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management                                    2+1

Theory:

Soil Fertility and productivity – factors affecting these, features of good soil management;
Problems of supply and availability of nutrients; relationship between nutrient supply and crop growth; organic farming- basic concept and definitions.

Criteria of essentiality of nutrients. Essential plant nutrients-their functions, nutrient deficiency symptoms; transformation and dynamics of major plant nutrients.

Preparation and use of farm yard manure, compost , green manure, vermin-compost, bio-fertilizers and other organic concentrates, their composition, availability and crop response, recycling of organic wastes and residue management.

Commercial fertilizers- composition, relative fertilizer value and cost; crop response to different nutrients, residual effect and fertilizer use efficiency, fertilizer mixture and grade; agronomic, chemical and physiological methods of increasing fertilizer use efficiency; nutrient interactions.

Time and methods of application of manures and fertilizers; foliar application and its concept; relative performance of manures and fertilizes; economics of fertilizer use; integrated nutrient management; use of vermin-compost and crop residue.

Practical:

    • Determination of soil pH, EC, organic C, total N, available N, P, K and S in soils.
    • Determination of total N, P, K and S in plants.
    • Interpretation of interaction effects and computation of economic and yield optima.
    • Identification of fertilizes and manures.

FP-613:      Principles and Practices of Water Management                                 2+1

Theory:

Water and its role in plants; water resources of India, major irrigation projects, extent of area and irrigated crops in India and different states.
Water movement in soil and plant, transpiration; soil-water-plant relationship; water absorption by plants; plant response to water stress, crop plant adaptation to moisture stress conditions. Dry land farming and water management. Water harvesting and moisture conservation techniques.
Soil, plant and meteorological factors determining water needs of crops, scheduling,depth and methods of irrigation ,micro-irrigation system; fertigation; management of water in controlled environments and polyhouses.
Water management of the crops and cropping systems; quality of irrigation water and management of saline water for irrigation; water use efficiency. Excess of soil water and plant growth; water management in problems soils; drainage requirement of crops and methods of field drainage, their layout and spacing.

Practical:

  • Measurement of soil water potential by using tensiometer, and pressure plate membrane apparatus.
  • Soil-moisture characteristics curves.
  • Water flow measurements using different devices.
  • Determination of irrigation requirements.
  • Calculation of irrigation efficiency.
  • Determination of infiltration rate

FP-614:           Agronomy of Fodder Crops                                                               3+1

Theory:

Adaptation, distribution, varietal improvement, agro-techniques and quality aspects including anti-quality factors of important fodder crops like maize sorghum+teosinte, bajra guar, cowpea, oats, barley, berseem, senji, lucerne, mustard, turnip, hybrid napier grass, guinea grass, rye grass, red clover, white clover, Lasiuras, Cenchrusetc.
Suitable fodder rotations of fodder crops and their mixtures for different agroclimatic zones of country.
Year-round fodder production. Principles and method of hay and silage making, chemical and biochemical changes, nutrient losses and factors affecting quality of hay and silage;  use of physical and chemical enrichment and biological methods for improving nutritive value of poor quality fodder. Economics of fodder cultivation.

Practical:

  • Identification of important fodder crops, grasses and weeds.
  • Practical training of farm operations in raising of fodder crops.
  • Canopy measurement and yield estimation.
  • Maintenance of herbarium.
  • Estimation of crude protein, NDF, ADF, lignin, silica, cellulose.

FP-621:      Principles and Practices of Weed Management                                          2+1

Theory:

Weed biology and ecology, crop-weed competition including allelopathy; principles and method of weed control and classification.
Herbicides introduction and history of their development; classification based on chemical physiological application and selectivity; mode and mechanism of action of herbicides.
Herbicide structure activity relationship, factors affecting the efficiency of herbicides; herbicides formulation, herbicide mixtures, weed control through bio-herbicides, myco-herbicides and allelochemicals; degradation of herbicides in soil and plants; herbicide resistance in weeds and crops and its management, herbicide rotation.
Weed management in major crops and cropping systems; parasitic weeds, weed shifts in cropping systems; aquatic and perennial weed control. Integrated weed management, cost benefit analysis of weed management.

 

Practical:

  • Identification of important weeds and weeds seeds.
  • Preparation of a weed herbarium.
  • Weed survey in crops and cropping systems.
  • Crop –weed competition studies.
  • Preparation of spray solutions of herbicides for high and low-volume sprayers.
  • Use of various types of spray pumps and nozzles and calculation of swath width.
  • Economics of weed control.
  • Herbicide residue analysis in plant and soil.
  • Calculation of herbicide requirement and diagnosis of herbicide injury.    

FP-622:            Seed Production Agronomy                                     2+1

Theory:

General  principles of seed production and certification. Problems of seed production in India with special reference to forage crops. Seed production techniques and agronomical practices of important cereals, pulses and forage crops. Seed industry in the country and role of various agencies.
Seed morphology, seed multiplication chain, seed purity, seed health, seed dormancy, seed vigour, hybrid seed production, seed treatment, seed viability, seed quality, physiology of seed germination, seed testing for germination and seedling evaluation, seed certification, processing , grading and storage, distribution and marketing. storage grain pests.

Practical:

  • Seed sampling and evaluation of seed quality on the basis of purity and germination, rouging, detaseling, inspection. 
  • Familiarization with seed processing equipments and materials
  • Precautions for seed storage.
  • Comparison of farmer’s saved seed with certified seed.
  • Sowing and maintenance of seed production fields of important crops.
  • Visits to commercial seed production fields, seed processing plants and sale counters of seed agencies.

FP-622:            Seed Production Agronomy                                     2+1

Theory:

General  principles of seed production and certification. Problems of seed production in India with special reference to forage crops. Seed production techniques and agronomical practices of important cereals, pulses and forage crops. Seed industry in the country and role of various agencies.
Seed morphology, seed multiplication chain, seed purity, seed health, seed dormancy, seed vigour, hybrid seed production, seed treatment, seed viability, seed quality, physiology of seed germination, seed testing for germination and seedling evaluation, seed certification, processing , grading and storage, distribution and marketing. storage grain pests.

Practical:

  • Seed sampling and evaluation of seed quality on the basis of purity and germination, rouging, detaseling, inspection. 
  • Familiarization with seed processing equipments and materials
  • Precautions for seed storage.
  • Comparison of farmer’s saved seed with certified seed.
  • Sowing and maintenance of seed production fields of important crops.
  • Visits to commercial seed production fields, seed processing plants and sale counters of seed agencies.

FP-623:           Grasslands and Pastures                                                                   2+1

Theory:

Importance of agrostalogy, priniciples of grassland ecology; grassland ecology- community, climax, dominant species, succession, biotype, ecology status of grassland ecologt in India, grass cover of India, economic aspects of grasslands, their problems and management. Improvement of grasslands.
Importance, classification, scope, status and research needs of pastures; pastures establishment, management, improvement, renovation and utilization of natural pastures; cultivated pastures.
Development and management of rangelands, grasslands and system of grazing. Suitable grass, legumes mixture. Cultivation of important grasses and legumes under irrigated, rainfed and hilly areas. Role of grasses in improvement soil fertility; silvipastures systems and scope in India. Grazing management, nutrient management, importance of agroforestry; agroforestry systems-agrisilviculture, silvipasture, agrihorticulture, alley cropping.

Practical:

    1. Preparation of charts and maps of India showing different types of pastures and agro-forestry systems.
    2. Identification of seeds and plants of common grasses, legumes and trees of economic importance with reference to silvi-pastures system.
    3. Seed treatment for better germination.
    4. Methods of propagation/planting of grasses and trees in silvipastoral system.
    5. Fertilizer application in strip and silvipastoral systems.
    6. Estimation of protein content in loppings of important fodder trees.
    7. Visit to Indian Grasslands and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi and Palampur.

FP-624:                Crop Physiology and Ecology                                                        3+0

Theory:

Plant growth and development, seed germination, photo-periodism, vernalization, dormancy and plant movement. Enzymes and plant growth regulators, their mode of action and functions in relation to crop production. Nutrient absorption, translocation, functions and deficiency sysmptoms. Photosynthesis and respiration. Drought, frost and salt resistance.
Basic concept and principles of crop ecology, agriculture systems, ecology of cropping systems, principles of plant distribution and adaptation, crop and world food supply; physiological limits of crop yield and variability in relation to the ecological optimum. Ecosystem characteristics, types and functions, terrestrial  ecology , flow of energy in ecosystem, ecosystem productivity, biomass, succession and climax concept. Physiological response of crop plants to light, temperature, co2, moisture and solar radiation ; influence of climate on photosynthesis and productivity of crops; effect of global climate change on crop production.
Exploitation of solar energy in crops; vertical distribution of temperature; efficiency in crop production. Competition in crop plants, environmental pollution, ecological basis of environmental management and environment manipulation through agronomic practices.

 

ORGANISATION AND STRUCTURE :

Ph. D. AGRONOMY

Major Subjects:                          Agronomy

Semester-I

Course No.

Name of the Courses

L

P

FP 711

Modern Concepts in Agronomy *

3

0

FP 712

Advances in weed management

3

0

FP 713

Recent Trends in fodder and pasture crops production*

2

1

FP 714

Soil fertility and Nutrient management

2

1

FP 715

Experimental techniques in Agronomy*

2

2

 

Minor

 

 

Semester-II

Sr.No.    Course No.                                 Title of Course Credit hours

FP 721

Principles and Practices of Organic Farming

2

1

FP 722

Recent Concept of water management

2

1

FP 723

Advances in Seed production and management

2

1

FP 724

Agrostology and Agroforestry

2

1

FP 725

Crop Ecology and Climate Change

3

0

FP 726

Farming Systems

2

1

 

Minor

 

 

 

Supporting

 

 

Semester-III-VI

FP 731

Seminar

2

0

FP 732

Research

0

45

*Core courses for Ph.D.

FP 711: MODERN CONCEPTS IN AGRONOMY* 3(3+0)                                 SEM-I

Objective
To acquaint the students about the recent developments in agronomy and resource management.
Theory:

UNIT I
Environmental concerns related to intensive use of agricultural inputs. Sustainable agriculture - need, scope, practices and economic evaluation, holistic approach of farming systems. Agro-physiological basis of variation in yield, role of agro-biodiversity in sustainable food production, GM crops, crop diversification for improved food and nutritional security.
UNIT II
Conservation agriculture, modern approaches for improving resource-use efficiency, crop residue management in multiple cropping systems. Principles and practices of conservation tillage and watershed management, carbon sequestration.
UNIT III
Precision farming - current status and opportunities for adoption in India. GIS, GPS and remote sensing for crop management, global warming.
UNIT IV
Contract farming - concept, scope, partnerships, types, characteristics, management and administration, problems and advantages for farmers/ sponsors, WTO issues in agriculture.
UNIT V
Crop modeling, systems classification; flow charts, modeling techniques and methods of integration - state, rates and driving variables, feedbacks and relational diagrams information technology, elementary models for crop growth based on basic methods of classical growth analysis.
UNIT VI
Protected agriculture - concept, characteristics, types, scope and limitations in India. Plant nutrition - challenges and tasks ahead. Stress crop production. 

 

 

Objective

To teach about the changing weed flora, new herbicides, their resistance, toxicity, antidotes and residue management under different cropping systems.

Theory:

UNIT-I: Crop-weed competition in different cropping situations; changes in weed flora, various causes and effects.
UNIT-II: Physiological and biological aspects of herbicides, their absorption, translocation, metabolism and mode of action; selectivity of herbicides and factors affecting them.
UNIT-III: Climatic factors and phytotoxicity of herbicides; fate of herbicides in soil and factors affecting them, residue management of herbicides, adjuvants.
UNIT-IV: Advances in herbicide application techniques; herbicide resistance; antidotes and crop protection compatibility of herbicides of different groups; compatibility of herbicides with other pesticides.
UNIT-V: Development of transgenic herbicide resistant crops; herbicide development, registration procedures.
UNIT-VI: Relationship of herbicides with tillage, fertilizer and irrigation; bioherbicides, allelochemical herbicide bioassays.

FP 713:  RECENT TRENDS IN FODDER AND PASTURE CROP PRODUCTION* 3(2+1) SEM-I

Objective

To teach the crop husbandry, conservation and utilization of different fodder crops, pastures and tree-forage crop-based systems

Theory:

UNIT I: Introduction,  origin,  history,  distribution,  adaptation, classification, climate, soil, varieties, water, weed management and nutrient  requirement of important cultivated fodder crops like maize, pearlmillet, teosinte, cluster bean,, cowpea, oats, barley, berseem, senji, lucerne etc.
UNIT II: Introduction,  origin,  history,  distribution,  adaptation, classification, climate, soil, varieties, water, weed management and nutrient  requirement of important forage crops/grasses/ legumes, like, napier and hybrid napier grass, guinea grass, Lasiuras, buffel grass, stylo, suitable weed flora for fodder etc.
UNIT III: Anti-quality factors of important fodder crops, forage grasses and legumes. Principles and methods of hay and silage making; chemical and biochemical changes, nutrient losses and factors affecting quality of hay and silage; use of physical and chemical enrichments and biological methods for improving nutrition; value addition of poor quality fodder.
UNIT IV: Natural grasslands of India. Establishment of pastures and their management with special reference to weed control and fertilization including  micronutrients important to animals, defoliation and  its effects, regeneration of infested pastures.
UNIT V:  Wasteland development - selection of species, planting methods and problems of seed germination in agro-forestry systems. Lopping and coppicing in agro-forestry systems.

Practical:

  1. Practical training of farm operations in raising fodder crops, canopy measurement.
  2. Yield and quality estimation, viz. crude protein, NDF, ADF, lignin, silica, cellulose etc. of various fodder and forage crops.
  3. Anti-quality components like HCN in sorghum and such factors in other crops.
  4. Hay and silage making 
  5. Identification of seeds and plants of common grasses, legumes and trees of economic importance with reference to agro-forestry.
  6. Methods of propagation/planting of grasses, trees in silvipastoral system.
  7. Fertilizer application in strip and silvi-pastroal systems. 
  8. Visit to IGFRI / NRCAF, Jhansi.

FP 714: SOIL FERTILITY AND NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT 3(2+1) SEM - I

Objective

To teach the principles and practices of organic farming for sustainable crop production.

Theory:

UNIT-I: Soil fertility and productivity - factors affecting; features of good soil management; problems of supply and availability of nutrients; relation between nutrient supply and crop growth; organic farming - basic concepts and definitions.
UNIT-II: Criteria of essentiality of nutrients; Essential plant nutrients – their functions, nutrient deficiency symptoms; transformation and dynamics of major plant nutrients.
UNIT-III: Preparation and use of farmyard manure, compost, green manures, vermicompost, biofertilizers and other organic concentrates their composition, availability and crop responses; recycling of organic wastes and residue management.
UNIT-IV: Commercial fertilizers; composition, relative fertilizer value and cost; crop response to different nutrients, residual effects and fertilizer use efficiency, fertilizer mixtures and grades; agronomic, chemical and physiological methods of increasing fertilizer use efficiency; nutrient interactions.
UNIT-V: Time and methods of manures and fertilizers application; foliar application and its concept; relative performance of organic and inorganic manures; economics of fertilizer use; integrated nutrient management; use of vermin compost and residue wastes in crops.

Practical:

  1. Determination of soil pH, ECE, organic C, total N, available N, P, K and S in soils
  2. Determination of total N, P, K and S in plants
  3. Interpretation of interaction effects and computation of economic and yield optima

FP 715: EXPERIMENTALTECHNIQUES IN AGRONOMY* 4(2+2)                SEM-I

Objective

To teaching methodology of planning, layout, data recording, analysis, interpretation and report writing of agronomic experiments

Theory:

UNIT I-Historical aspects of field experimentation, principles and practices of field experimentation
UNIT II-Identification of research problem and preparation of research project proposal. Presentation of data and report writing.
UNIT III-Planning of experiments, recording of data - before layout of experiment, during crop growth and after harvest. Selection of experimental design, layout of experiment, number of treatments / replications, plot size, border effect etc. Techniques for increasing the precision for an experiment.
UNIT III-Interpretation of data from weed control, irrigation, fertilizer and cropping system experiments. Interactions in factorial experiments.
UNIT IV-Contrast analysis, pooled analysis, data transformation. Evaluation of direct, residual and cumulative effects of treatments
UNIT V-Correlation and regression analysis, and their application. Energetics and economic analysis. 
UNIT VI-Analysis of data of typical agronomic experiments. Nutrient and water balance sheets. Statistical softwares and their application.

Practical:

  1. Practical considerations in field experimentation.
  2. Overview  of softwares in agricultural research and analysis of data.
  3. Analysis of data of field experiments and Use of excel in data analysis.
  4. Statistical analysis of data using MSTATC.
  5. Calculation and interpretations of interactions of factorial experiments.
  6. Calculation of direct, residual and cumulative effects of treatments in cropping systems.
  7. Exercise on confounding designs.
  8. Exercise on data transformation.
  9. Exercise on missing plot analysis.
  10. Exercise on pooled analysis of data over years/locations.
  11. Exercise on linear regression equation.
  12. Exercise on quadratic regression equation.
  13. Economic analysis of field crop production.
  14. Exercise on determination of optimum economic dose of fertilizers.

FP 721: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF ORGANIC FARMING 3(2+1)    SEM-II

Objective

To teaching methodology of planning, layout, data recording, analysis, interpretation and report writing of agronomic experiments

Theory:

UNIT I: Definition, concepts, history and importance of organic farming; organic production scenario in the world, relevance and scope in India, principles, myths and constraints. Limitations of organic farming.
UNIT II: Relevance of organic farming with reference to international trade, climate change, carbon trading and carbon sequestration and human health. Biodynamic farming.
UNIT III: Package of practices for organic crop production – farm designing, crop planning, site selection, conversion period, conservation tillage, selection of seed / seedlings, availability and use of organic inputs, viz. vermicompost, biofertilizers, compost, green manures  for crop nutrition, water and weed management, crop protection, harvesting and post harvesting processing / care.
UNIT IV: Production technology and availability of different organic inputs, viz. vermicompost, biofertilizers, improved compost, green manure, bio-pesticides and plant products, crop-specific package of practices for organic production of different food, vegetable and flower crops.
UNIT V: Changes in physical, microbiological and chemical properties of soil. Evaluation of soil and produce quality. Certification of organic produce and process, certification agencies, group certification, marketing, success stories, potential organic production areas/ crops of India.

Practical:

  1. Technique of bio fertilizers application and their response in crops.
  2. Technique of bio-pesticide and pheromones application  and their response in crops.
  3. Quality standards, inspection, certification and labeling and accreditation procedures for farm produce from organic farms.
  4. Techniques of growing green manure crops.
  5. Visit to National Centre for Organic Farming (NCOF).
  6. Visit to blue-green algae centre of IARI, vermin-compost and bio-fertilizers production unit.
  7. Visit to bio-pesticide production units, Centre for Protected Crop Production, organic crop production farm.

FP 722: RECENT CONCEPTS OF WATER MANAGEMENT 3(2+1)   SEM-II

Objective

To teach the basic principles of water management and practices to enhance water productivity

Theory:

UNIT I: Water and its role in plants; water resources of India, major irrigation projects, extent of area and crops irrigated in India and different states. Soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, soil water movement in soil and plants, transpiration, soil-water-plant relationships, water absorption by plants, plant response to water stress, crop plant adaptation to moisture stress condition.
UNIT II: Soil, plant and meteorological factors determining water needs of crops; scheduling, depth and methods of irrigation; micro-irrigation system; fertigation; management of water in controlled environments and polyhouses
UNIT III: Water management of crops and cropping systems, management of soil moisture stress and plant growth, strategies of using limited water supply, quality of irrigation water and management of saline water for irrigation, water-use efficiency.
UNIT IV: Water stress – deficit and excess, its effect on growth and development, water stress injury and resistance, management of water stress through soil and crop manipulations, excess of soil water and plant growth; water management in problem soils
UNIT V: Drainage - concept and classification. Field drainage systems with special emphasis on crop production and soil salinity. Inter-relationship of drainage with cropping patterns and types of farming. Drainage requirement of crops and methods of field drainage, their layout  and spacing
UNIT VI: Land suitability for irrigation, land irrigability classification; integrated water management in command areas, institution of water management in commands, farmer’s participation in command areas; irrigation legislation.

Practical:

  1. Measurement of soil water potential by using tensiometer, and pressure plate and membrane apparatus.

  2.  Preparation of soil-moisture characteristics curves.
  3. Water flow measurements using different devices.
  4. Determination of irrigation requirement and irrigation efficiency.
  5. Determination of infiltration rate, saturated/unsaturated hydraulic conductivity.
  6. Estimation of drain spacing under surface and sub-surface method.
  7. Soil moisture constants and measurement.
  8. Measurement of evapo-transpiration and water requirement of crops.
  9. Water management experiments – planning, conduct, recoding of data and interpretation

FP 723: ADVANCES IN SEED  PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT   3(2+1) SEM-II

Objective
To teach the basic principles of seed production
Theory:

UNIT-I General principles of seed production.
UNIT-II Problems of seed production in India with special reference to forage crops, grasses and fodder trees.
UNIT-III Seed production techniques and agronomical practices of important forage crops, grasses and fodder trees including GM crops.
UNIT-IV Seed industry in the country and role of various agencies, seed morphology, seed multiplication chain, seed purity, seed health, dormancy, seed vigor, hybrid seed production, seed treatment, seed viability, seed quality, physiology of seed germination, seed testing for germination and seedling evaluation,
UNIT-V Seed certification, processing, grading and storage, distribution and marketing  and management of  storage grain, control of storage grain pests.


Practical:

  1. Seed sampling and evaluation of seed quality on the basis of purity and germination rouging, detaseling, inspection.
  2. Familiarization with seed processing equipments and materials
  3. Precautions for seed storage
  4. Comparison of farmer’s saved seed with certified seed.
  5. Sowing and maintenance of seed production fields of important crops .
  6. Visits to commercial seed production fields, seed processing plants and sale counters of seed agencies.

FP 724:  AGROSTOLOGY AND AGROFORESTRY 3(2+1)            SEM - II

Objective
To teach crop husbandry of different forage, fodder and agroforestry crops/trees along with their processing.
Theory:

UNIT-I: Agrostology: definition and importance; principles of grassland ecology: grassland ecology – community, climax, dominant species, succession, biotype, ecological status of grasslands in India, grass cover of India; problems and management of grasslands.
UNIT-II: Importance, classification (various criteria), scope, status and research needs of pastures; pasture establishment, their improvement and renovation-natural pastures, cultivated pastures; common pasture grasses.
UNIT-III: Agroforestry: definition and importance; agroforestory systems, agrisilviculture, silvipasture, agrisilvipasture, agrihorticulture, aquasilviculture, alley cropping and energy plantation.
UNIT-IV: Crop production technology in agro-forestory and agrostology system; silvipastoral system: meaning and importance for wasteland development; selection of species, planting methods and problems of seed germination in agro-forestry systems; irrigation and manuring in agro-forestry systems, lopping and coppicing in agro-forestry systems, nutritive value of trees; tender operation; desirable tree characteristics.


Practical:

  1. Preparation of charts and maps of India showing different types of pastures and agroforestry systems.
  2. Identification of seeds and plants of common grasses, legumes and trees of economic importance with    reference to agro-forestry.
  3. Seed treatment for better germination.
  4. Methods of propagation/planting of grasses and trees in silvipastoral system.
  5. Fertilizer application in strip and silvipastroal systems.
  6. After-care of plantation.
  7. Estimation of protein content in loppings of important fodder trees.
  8. Economics of agro-forestry.
  9. Visit to important agro-forestry research stations.

 

FP 725: CROP ECOLOGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE 3(3+0 )              SEM - II

Objective

To acquaint the students about the agricultural systems, agro-ecological regions, and adaptation of crops to different agro-climatic conditions.

Theory:

UNIT-I: Concept of crop ecology, agricultural systems, ecology of cropping systems, principles of plant distribution and adaptation, crop and world food supply.
UNIT-II: Ecosystem characteristics, types and functions, terrestrial ecology, flow of energy in ecosystem, ecosystem productivity, biomass, succession and climax concept.
UNIT-III: Physiological response of crop plants to light, temperature, CO2, moisture and solar radiation; influence of climate on photosynthesis and productivity of crops.
UNIT-IV: Exploitation of solar energy in crops; vertical distribution of temperature; efficiency in crop production.
UNIT-V: Competition in crop plants; environmental pollution, ecological basis of environmental management and environment manipulation through agronomic practices; improvement of unproductive lands through crop selection and management.
UNIT-VI: Effect of global climate change on crop production and climate resilient forage production.


FP 725: CROP ECOLOGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE 3(3+0 )              SEM - II

Objective

To appraise about cropping and farming systems, types of integrated farming systems under different agro-ecosystems, farming systems research and optimization methodologies.

Theory:

UNIT I-Cropping systems – definition, indices, production potential, resource management in cropping systems, production potential under monoculture, multiple cropping, alley cropping, intercropping, mutli-storeyed cropping. Yield advantages in intercropping systems.
UNIT II-Farming systems - definition and importance; classification of farming systems, characteristics, objectives and principles. Concept of sustainability in farming systems; efficient farming systems; natural resources - identification and management.
UNIT III-Production potential of different components of farming systems. Cropping systems: as an important component of FS, remunerative cropping systems, crop diversification.
UNIT IV-Integrated farming systems for different agro-ecosystems, interactions and resource recycling among different enterprises.
UNIT V-Farming system research methodologies: on-farm research, on-station research and system modeling. Preparation of different farming system models; evaluation of different farming systems. case studies on different farming systems. Multi-criteria decision making and optimization methodologies for designing integrated farming systems.


Practical:

  1. Indices for assessing cropping system efficiency.
  2. Measurement of competition effects in intercropping systems.
  3. Farming system analysis: Participatory Rural Appraisal, Rapid Rural Appraisal, diagnostic survey.
  4. Farming system analysis: Interaction with farmers, problem identification, and prioritization and development projects/interventions for solutions to the identified problems.
  5. Use of optimization software for developing models, formation of matrix and drawing of different scenarios
  6. Handling single objective LP model, Handling multi-objective LP model and analysis of data for risk analysis, resource allocation and  enterprise selection decisions.
  7. Visit to apiary, vermin-compost, mushroom production and biogas production unit, integrated farming systems
Supporting Course:  Soil Science- for M.Sc./Ph.D. Agronomy (Forage production)

SS 611: Soil Science                          Semester-I                 Credit hour: 3(2+1)

 

Theory:

Unit-I: Soil and Soil components, Soil physical, chemical and biological properties in relation to crop production.
Unit-II: Problem Soils and their distribution in India, acid, saline, water logged and calcareous soils. Excess salt and salt tolerant crops. Reclamation of problem soils, amendments and drainage.
Unit-III: Crop production techniques in problem soils- crops, varieties, cropping systems and agronomic practices.
Unit-IV: Degraded lands & their rehabilitation.
Unit-V: Fertilizers, insecticides and their effects on soil.


Practical:

  1. Soil sampling for different purposes.
  2. Soil profile & its characteristics.
  3. Bulk density, particle density and aggregate size analysis of soil.
  4. Identification of fertilizers & their application.
  5. pH, EC and OC determination of soils.
  6. Determination of total N & P in soil/fertilizer/manure.
  7. Lime and Gypsum requirement of problem soils.
FP-421: Production and Conservation of Fodder Crops and Grasses               3(2+1)
Pre-Requisite Course

 

Theory:

Unit I- Definition of important key words used in fodder and pasture. Importance of forage crops. Indigenous fodder grasses and pastures found at different altitudes of India.
Unit II- Agronomic practices for cultivation of annual (maize, sorghum, bajra, teosinte, oats, cowpea,
 berseem, turnip) and perennial (Napier, Setaria, Cenchrus, Stylo, Lucerne, Clitoria, Guinea grass, Paragrass) cultivated fodders and their nutritive value.
Unit III-Improvement of indigenous pastures, Introduction of exotic species in indigenous pastures, Pastures and grazing management.
Unit IV- Tree fodders, Silvipasture management, Agrisilvipastoral, Alley cropping systems and their importance
Unit V- Fodder Conservation- Hay, Silage, Bails, Dehydrated fodders, Dry leaves, Feed blocks.

Practical:

  1. Cultivation of fodder production practices
  2. Estimation of Nutritive value of fodder- DM, CP, Total Ash and EE
  3. Visit to Forage Research Institution/Farmers/ commercial dairy farms.
  4. Calculation of fertilizers requirement for different fodders
  5. Identification of different fodders/grasses and fodder weeds
  6. Herbarium preparation

Faculty

  • Dr. Magan Singh, Ph.D.,Senior Scientist (Agronomy) & In charge-Research, Teaching and Extension
  • Dr. Rakesh Kumar, Ph.D., Senior Scientist (Agronomy)
  • Dr. R. K. Yadav, Ph. D., P.S. (Agronomy), CSSRI, Karnal
  • Dr. Parveen Kumar, Ph.D., P.S. (Agronomy), CSSRI, Karnal
  • Dr. A.K.Rai, Ph.D., P.S. (Soil Science), CSSRI, Karnal
  • Dr. Neelam Kumar Chopra, Ph.D., P.S. (Agronomy), IARI, Karnal
  • Dr.  (Mrs.) Nishakant Chopra, Ph.D., P.S. (Agronomy), IARI, Karnal
  • Dr. Nirmalendu Basak, Ph.D., Scientist (Soil science), CSSRI, Karnal
  • Dr. Uttam Kumar,Ph.D. (Agronomy), CTO
  • Mr. Anil Kumar Dagar, M.Sc.(Agronomy), STO
  • Dr. V.K.Meena, Ph.D.(Agronomy), STO


 
 
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