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|About-Eastern Regional Station, Kalyani
Eastern Regional Station
National Dairy Research Institute
Executive Summary (highlighting important achievements)
This research station has good infrastructure facilities in terms of Laboratory, Cattle Herd, Fodder Production Farm, Library, Farmers' Hostel and a Guest House. There are six sections, which are engaged in research work on various aspects of Dairy Cattle Production viz. Nutrition, Breeding, Management, Economics & Statistics, Extension and Forage Production. The Cattle Yard maintains nearly 133 cattle belonging to pure bred Tharparkar and the crossbreds of Jersey and Holstein with the indigenous dam breeds e.g. Red Sindhi and Tharparkar. The Library, though small, contains 1403 books, 3225 volumes of bound journals and other periodicals in the field of Dairying. Besides, Annual reports of different Institutes, proceedings of various workshops and seminars are also available for reference. The computer centre has nine computers which facilitate the maintenance of huge data-base and statistical analysis of experimental data of various research projects. This station provides good laboratory facilities for the research work of M.Sc. and Ph. D. Scholars. Training programmes on "Scientific Dairy Farming" and "Animal Nutrition & Fodder Production" for educated unemployed rural youth are being organised every quarter for educating the rural mass on dairying. Field visits and orientation programmes are also organised for the farmers of Dairy Cooperative Societies and NGOs on request. This Institute has taken up a village Murragachha about 7km away from the Institute where all efforts are being made by the Institute to incorporate latest and suitable technologies in order to develop ‘dairying’ in the village.
- Recommendation for the nutrient deficient cows in the Old Alluvial Zone:
To encounter both protein and energy deficiencies, the farmers have to feed required quantity of balanced concentrate mixture. A balanced concentrate mixture can be easily made by the farmers using the local feed ingredients such as mustard/linseed cake, rice bran, rice grit, lime and salt in the ratio 38:30:30:1:1 and feed to their cattle in required quantities to satisfy both protein and energy hunger of the cows.
- Dairy scenario in Arunachal Pradesh:
Feeding practices followed by most farmers in mid to high altitude of Arunachal Pradesh are traditional in nature. Cows are let loose for grazing in roadsides and fields, where the animals graze local grasses and tree leaves which are naturally available in good quantities all throughout the year except the acute winter months. Only a very few farmers supplement local feeds viz. rice grit, maize, millet grains etc. to the lactating cows, mainly.Milk production of cows was observed to vary to a great extent from cow to cow both in local non-descript as well as in crossbred cows. In local non-descript cow milk production was found to vary from 0.5 kg to 3.5kg and in crossbred cows from 1.5 to 5 kg per cow per day.
Extension of the following technologies to the cow keepers for sustainable & profitable Dairy Farming through training programmes, field demonstration, leaflets & video shows.
Urea treatment of paddy straw
Preparation of balanced concentrate mixture with local feed ingredients.
3. Cultivation of low input fodder crops viz. Hybrid napier, para, guniea grass and subabul fodder trees.
Economics of Chhana production in rural areas of West Bengal.
Livestock census of 10 Grampanchayat(GP) of Haringhata Block has been collected. Jersey and Holstein crosses were available in the GPs. Fatehpur GP has first place in Jersey crosses (3415) followed by Malabalia GP (2687). However, Holstein crosses was available in Nagarukhra GP1(647) followed Birohi2(492). Buffalo population was negligible in the blocks. Among all GPs Fatehpur GP and Nagarukhra-1 have good number of chhana producers in the Block. Among Fatehpur GP, the villages Barasat(4) South Dattapara(7), Haripukhuria(6), Baliadanga(4) Barasatpara(3) Bamanpara(5) have chana producers.Among chhana producers, most of the channa producers belong to Ghosh Community alongwith agriculture and labour as a source of income. 40% chhana producers having parental business of channa production. All follow traditional method of chhana production. 1kg channa is produced from 5kg-5.5kg milk. Milk price ranges from 9-10 rupees. Sale price of chhana varies from 50-60 rupees. Buffalo milk is not used for chhana production.
Nutritional status of high altitude dairy animals in Eastern Himalayan Region.
Dairy cattle nutrition survey has been carried out in West Kameng and Tawang districts of Arunachal Pradesh. Information of dairy cattle feeding practices, milk production, health and management practices, milk marketing, constraints etc. has been collected from from 55 farmers (30 from Dirang, West Kameng and 25 from Tawang).
Local nondescript cow is predominant in both the district. Crossbred cows are very few in number. Facility of artificial insemination is very poor but likely to be developed very soon by the Govt. agencies in order to develop good crossbred cows for increased milk production.
Feeding practices followed by the most farmers are traditional in nature. All the cows are let loose for grazing in roads and fields where the animals graze local grasses and tree leaves which are naturally available in good quantities all throughout the year excepting acute winter months. Only a very few farmers supplement local feeds viz. rice grit, maize, millet grains etc. to the lactating cows, mainly. Cultivation of green fodder by the farmers in almost non-existent. However, farmers are gradually becoming aware about the importance of scientific feeding necessary for high milk production.
The forest area is 5.15 million ha constituting 61.50% of the total geographic area of the state. Local grasses as well as fodder trees are available in plenty in the state which constitute the bulk of the dairy cattle ration all throughout the year. Agricultural by products viz. paddy and millet straws, rice bran, rice grit, maize grit and vegetable & fruit wastes are also available for animal feeding but their availability is highly variable in different season and in different location.
Milk production of cows was observed to vary to a great extent from cow to cow both in local non-descript as well as in crossbred cows. In local non-descript cow milk production was found to vary from 0.5 kg to 3.5kg and in crossbred cows from 1.5 to 5kg per cow per day.
Studies on the management practices of rural dairy cattle for clean milk production in eastern India.
The relevant secondary information have been collected from the Milk Union Office, Haringhata Block Head Quarters, BLDO and Gram Panchyat Office for selection of survey villages. Based on the secondary information two villages in two categories of farming (dairy cooperative and general) have been selected for the detailed study. The selected two villages are Narayanpur, a dairy cooperative village and Ayespur, a general village.
Survey schedule for complete enumeration of villages has been prepared for selection of households and cows. Complete enumeration has been conducted in the selected two villages. Based on complete enumeration, detailed survey has been conducted in two villages on housing environment, milking management practices, animal health including udder, etc.
Regarding udder health status, it has been observed that 77.5% cows having regular udder shape and 22.5% having pendulous udder. The cows having healthy udder are 80%. Teat length of cows varies from 3-7cm. A high proportion of cows (82.5%) having teat end turned upward (normal) followed by flat teat end (10%) & inverted teat end(7.5%). Milk excretion was apparently normal in majority of the cows (87.5%). Sanitary drainage channel are not followed by majority of the farmers (86.5%). 53.8 % sheds are being cleaned regularly. Cattle shed having tile roof and brick floor are in majority.
Feed requirement of dairy cattle in rural households in the lower gangetic plain region in Eastern India.
Dairy cattle nutrition survey has been conducted in Beldanga in Murshidabad district and Mangalkot in Burdwan district under the Old Alluvial Zone. Farmers rear both non-descript desi and crossbred cattle. Around 51 per cent of the total cattle population surveyed in this zone were crossbred.
Few farmers under the three categories, landless (35 %), marginal (25%) and small (55%) feed branded concentrate mixture to their cows. Some farmers feed either rice grit or wheat flour to their milch animals. Some small farmers (60 %) feed local rice bran where as, around 30% of landless and 44% of marginal farmers offer local rice bran to their dairy animals in variable quantities. All farmers use mustard cake to supplement their dairy cows. Some farmers (28 %) farther supplement Tisi ( Linseed cake ) to their animals. Mineral mixture is fed by very few farmers (16 %). Salt is fed by most of the landless farmers (74%) and a significant portion of marginal (59%) and small(50 %) farmers. Cultivated green fodder is fed by none of the landless, very few (15%) marginal and a significant portion (50%) of small farmers. Cut field grass is fed by 69%,89% and 85% farmers of landless, marginal and small category, respectively. Few farmers allow their animals to graze or scavenge in some parts of the day. Around 52% of Landless, 52% of marginal and 65% of small farmers allow their cows to graze or scavenge. Feeding of paddy straw is common practice and around 96 % of the total respondents feed paddy straw to their animals.
Average milk production in cows (kg/d) of the landless, marginal and small farmers in this zone was 4.0± 0.45, 4.14±0.25 and 5.1±0.66, respectively. Around 26% cows of the landless farmers and 13% cows of the marginal farmers and 25% of small farmers were found to produce milk up to 2 kg per day whereas, 48% cows of the landless, 65% cows of the marginal and 35% cows of the small farmers produced milk 2.1 to 5kg per day. Around 26% of the landless, 22 % cows of the marginal and 40% cows of the small farmers produced milk more than 5 kg per day.
Nutrition Profile of the cows :
Dry matter intake of the cows up to 2kg per 100kg body weight was observed in 17% cows under the landless ,11% under the marginal farmers and 20% of the small farmers. Around 83% cows of the landless, 89% cows of the marginal and 80% cows of the small farmers consume DM more than 2kg per 100kg body weight.
No protein deficiency was observed in 30%, 36% and 55% cows under the landless, marginal and small farmers, respectively. Marginal deficiency (up to 10%) was observed in 13%,10% and 5% cows under the landless, marginal and small farmer groups, respectively. Around 22%,30% and 30% cows in the landless, marginal and small farmer groups were protein deficient by 11-30% level. Severe protein deficiency(above 30%) was observed in only 17%,16% and 10% cows in the landless, marginal and small farmer groups, respectively. Overall, around 62% cows covered under this survey suffer from protein deficiency.
Around 26%,43% and 40 % cows belonging to the landless, marginal and small farmers, respectively do not suffer from any energy deficiency. Marginal deficiency (up to 10% level) was observed in 26%,10% and 10% cows in the landless, marginal and small farmers groups where as, 31%,31% and 40% cows in the respective groups suffer from medium (11-30%) level of energy deficiency. Around 17 % of the landless farmer groups, 16 % of the marginal farmer groups and 10% of the small farmer groups suffer from high level (above30 %) of energy deficiency. Overall, around 61% cows covered under this survey suffer from energy deficiency.
All categories of farmers in this zone feed green fodder to their cows to the extent possible for them and farther increase of green fodder feeding is not very practical proposition. In order to encounter both protein and energy deficiencies and to increase and sustain milk production , the farmers have to feed increased quantity of balanced concentrate mixture to satisfy both protein and energy hunger of the cows. A balanced concentrate mixture can be easily made by the farmers using the local feed ingredients such as mustard/linseed cake, rice bran, rice grit, lime and salt in the ratio 38:30:30:1:1 and feed to their cattle.
Impact of social, cultural and anthropological factors on dairy production systems in the lower Gangetic plains of West Bengal.
Socio-cultural beliefs and practices associated with dairy husbandry is still prevalent in rural Bengal. Basically rituals and treatment of cattle disorders by indigenous herbs is practiced. Belief on vaids and ustaads or maulvis in the treatment of common ailments or warding off evil inflicted by individuals on animals is worn off by use of talisman or water blessed by mantras given by traditional healers. The local village moneylender or mahajan is still the common source for seeking credit or loans. Local animal agents and gowalas (ghosh) are the main source for procurement or disposal of animals. They serve as experts in selection of cattle etc. Mass media has very negligible impact on knowledge about developmental aspects pertaining to dairying. Neighbor and progressive dairy farmers serve as advisors and guide. Lower socioeconomic strata of the rural populace still rear cattle to meet their daily needs of fuel ,manure and cash by sale of milk . Human consumption is very negligible. More than 80% of milk produced is sold .Extension and education in dairying is not effective nor has an impact on the rural milk producers.Milk production is not remunerative and that is why farmers adhere to traditional practices of cattle rearing. Health service by the Veterinary department is not adequate.
Develop Information – Education – Communication Model to strengthen direct interaction between farmer and experts (scientists) .This could be done with the help of interactive video /audio technology on a pilot basis. The landless and marginal farmers are the prime work force for dairy development. They must be organized in viable groups along the lines of ‘ Self Help Groups,’ and ‘principles of cooperatives.’Training and demonstration must be conducted both at institutional and village level to train the farmers in scientific dairy farming . Dairy production management should include quality processing and marketing of milk products. Mere optimization of milk production is presently not remunerative.
Extension & Education:
Bench Mark Survey on the Socio-economic Status of Farmers:
A benchmark survey was carried out in the village Muragacha, Nadia to evaluate the socioeconomic status of dairy farmers which was adopted by the Institute for integrated rural development with focus on dairying. Parameters like age group, education level, occupation, land holding, cropping pattern, livestock holding, house system, feeding practices, body weight and milk production of cows, annual income of the households, technical knowledge on dairying and management practices were studied.
Health coverage carried out in the model village, Muragacha during 2005:
Genetic Improvement of local Livestock:
141 cows were inseminated with Jersey semen. 39 cows were examined for pregnancy, out of which 26 cows were found pregnant. Two calves were born.
356 animals were treated for different diseases like worm infection, anoestrous, wound, naval cord infection and infectious diseases.
Health camps were organised for vaccination and deworming of animals, in which 365 animals were vaccinated against FMD, and 235 animals were vaccinated against H.S. 135 animals were given deworming medicine and 18 animals were treated for infertility.
An Workshop on “Technological Interventions for Socio-Economic Enrichment of Rural Dairy Farmers in Eastern and Northeastern India “ was held at this Institute from 25-26th February.
This research station has good infrastructure facilities in terms of Laboratory, Cattle Herd, Fodder Production Farm, Library, Farmers' Hostel and a Guest House. There are six sections, which are engaged in research work on various aspects of Dairy Cattle Production viz. Nutrition, Breeding, Management, Economics & Statistics, Extension and Forage Production. The Cattle Yard maintains nearly 133 cattle belonging to pure bred Tharparkar and the crossbreds of Jersey and Holstein with the indigenous dam breeds e.g. Red Sindhi and Tharparkar. The Library though small contains 1403 books, 3225 volumes of bound journals and other periodicals in the field of Dairying. Besides, Annual reports of different Institutes and proceedings of various workshops and seminars are also available for reference. The computer centre has nine computers which facilitate the maintenance of huge data-base and statistical analysis of experimental data of various research projects. This station provides good laboratory facilities for the research work of M.Sc. and Ph. D. Scholars. Training programmes on "Scientific Dairy Farming" and "Animal Nutrition & Fodder Production" for educated unemployed rural youth is being organised every quarter for educating the rural mass on dairying. Field visits and orientation programmes are also organised for the farmers of Dairy Cooperative Societies and NGOs on request. This Institute has taken up a village Murragachha about 7km away from the Institute where all efforts are being made by the Institute to incorporate latest suitable technologies in order to develop dairying in the village.
- Livestock Farm
- Different Breeds: Jersey cross, Holstein cross, Tharparkar.
- Farm Section
Forage section of ERS of NDRI strives for production of forage crops (green and dry) and its distribution to the farm animals and maintenance of timber wood plantation. It has two other units- mini workshop for minor repairing / maintenance of agricultural machineries and a meteorological observatory.
The Library though small contains 1371 books, 3225 volumes of bound journals and other periodicals in the field of Dairying. Besides, Annual reports of different Institutes and proceedings of various workshops and seminars are also available for reference. It has an air-conditioned reading room where the readers can concentrate on studies in a comfortable atmosphere particularly during the sultry summer months.
ERS Foundation Day and Dairy Mela-2005
The function started at 11am on 12th April, 2005. Chief guest of the function, Dr. Rajvir Singh, Director, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. in his inaugural address briefly described the history and mandate of the Eastern Regional Station to promote dairy development in the Eastern Region of the country. He stressed that improved technologies of dairying need to be percolated to the end users living in the villages of this region.
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Development of Database for Strategic Planning at National and International Levels Livestock marketing system in Nadia district of West Bengal:
A survey was conducted to study the existing livestock markets and availability of animals of Nadia district. There are 12 livestock markets functioning in 9 blocks of the district. There are three types of markets
i.e. large (having more than 200 sellers/buyers),medium (having more than 100 sellers/buyers but less than 200) and small (having less than 100 sellers/buyers in each day of market). It was observed that number of cattle and buffalo was higher in Debagram livestock market followed by Bamundanga and Birohi markets. But buffalo transaction was not found in Birohi. Goat and sheep were available in Bamundanga and Birohi markets under large category of markets. Dhubulia, Birnagar, Beldanga are medium category livestock markets. Dhubulia has higher number of sellers/buyers among three. Among 12 livestock markets, 50% are small markets, where limited numbers of sellers/ buyers are available. Two markets viz., Abhoypur (Karimpur-I) and Dogachi (Karimpur-II) are irregular markets. Other 4 markets are in operation with limited number of animals. Cattle are the only animal for sale and purchase in Bonberia and Nowapara markets. BSF camp Dutta Fulia market is small and goat is the only animal available in this market. Cattle, buffalo and goats are available in very limited numbers in Hagnagari livestock market.
The study revealed that there are no organised markets in West Bengal with adequate user facilities for acquiring desired quality and number of animals. Private contractors manage majority of these markets (83%). The taxation system is lop-sided. The sellers are loaded with tax burden, particularly in medium and small markets, which make the livestock marketing system less profitable.
Nutritional Requirements of High Producing Dairy Cattle and Buffaloes under In-house Rearing system
Study and evaluation of dairy cattle nutrition status in different agro-ecological regions in Eastern India:
Dairy cattle nutrition survey was carried out in eight agro-ecological regions and data of dairy cattle feeding was collected randomly from landless, marginal, small and large farmers and intake of feeds and milk production of cow was recorded on the day of the survey. Intake of DCP and TDN of cows was calculated by using the book values and compared with the ICAR Feeding Standard, 1988.
The survey on the nutritional status of dairy cattle of eight agro-ecological zones of eastern and northeastern region revealed that the overall average daily milk yield per cow in this region was 2.13 kg. The average DM intake was 2.2%. The deficiency of DCP and TDN were 13% and 5%, respectively. Corrective measures for providing balanced nutrition were suggested for dairy cattle of different agro-ecological regions.
Feed requirement of dairy cattle in rural households in the lower Gangetic plain region in Eastern India :
Dairy cattle nutrition survey was conducted in the Coastal Saline Zone area to assess the nutrition level of the dairy cattle maintained by the different groups of farmers, landless, marginal and small. Information on actual feeding to the lactating cows was collected from 31 farmers under each category of farmers viz. landless (having no cultivable land), marginal (land holding size upto 1hectare) and small (land holding size from 1-2 hectare). For conducting this dairy cattle nutrition survey, information on all the parameters such as different breeds of cattle reared, feeding practices followed, milk production and nutritional profile of cows was collected from all the categories of farmers.
Shelter management systems of dairy cattle for different category of farmers:
Dairy cattle shelter systems followed by rural households were studied in detail to find out the suitable shelter(s) considering cost effectiveness and socio-economic conditions of the dairy cattle owners. Secondary information was collected from 17 blocks of Nadia district on cattle population, health care, AI facilities, functioning of cooperative societies, marketing facilities, number of villages etc. Based on cattle development facilities, blocks were classified into developed and underdeveloped.
The study on dairy cattle housing management practices revealed that a higher proportion of respondents had separate houses for their dairy cattle. Majority of the sheds was situated nearer to the family house. Regarding direction of shed, no specific trend was observed. It was observed that 92% mangers were made up of cement concrete and rest was of dried mud. Separate water trough was not maintained. Overall unhygienic drainage channel was observed in 82% of the sheds. The cattle sheds under specialized dairy farming communities in both types of villages followed drainage system at higher side as compared to the other two farming systems. This might be due to the better awareness of sanitary condition of cattle shed and resource availability of the specialized dairy farmers. The studies revealed that milk production was the highest in the dairy cows sheltered in sheds with tiled roofs, brick/rcc floor and having no wall. Such shelter systems provided relatively comfortable microenvironmental conditions on account of low humidity and THI values in most of the months in hot humid agro-climatic conditions of Eastern India.
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