National Dairy Research Institute

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National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal
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National Dairy Research Institute
The National Dairy Research Institute as country's premier Dairy Research institution has developed considerable expertise over the last five decades in different areas of Dairy Production, Processing, Management and Human Resource Development. Information generated at the Institute and the services offered have contributed to the growth of Dairy Industry as a whole and well-being of millions of milk producers and consumers of milk and milk products. Realizing the challenging need of global Dairy Trade, the Institute is continuously working to develop its R&D and HRD programmes to better serve the nation in terms of food security, employment generation, poverty alleviation and economic prosperity.
The National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal was originally started as Imperial Institute of Animal Husbandry and Dairying in 1923 at Bangalore. It was expanded and renamed as Imperial Dairy Institute in 1936 and was known as National Dairy Research Institute after independence in 1947.  Subsequently, in 1955, NDRI Headquarter was shifted to Karnal. Facilities at Bangalore were retained to function as a Regional Station to serve the Southern States.
In 1964, Eastern Regional Station of the Institute was established at Kalyani in West Bengal. Both these Regional Stations continue to provide region specific R&D support for dairy development in these areas. In 1970, NDRI was brought under the wings of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research to provide greater operational autonomy to the Institute in research management functions. In 1989, status of Deemed University was conferred to the Institute for further strengthening the academic programmes for human resource development.

The National Dairy Research Institute as the premier Dairy Research Institution undertakes research, teaching and extension activities towards dairy development in the country. Being the National Institute, it conducts basic and applied research with the objective to enhance animal productivity and also to develop cost effective technologies for the benefit of the teeming millions. Further, the Institute provides high quality manpower to meet the human resource requirements for the overall dairy development in the country. The Institute also undertakes extension programmes for transferring the know-how from the laboratory to the farmers’ fields.

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1923 Established in Bangalore as Imperial Institute of Animal Husbandry and Dairying.
1936 Renamed “Imperial Dairy Institute”. Indian Dairy Diploma-a two year course started.
National Dairy Research Institute came into existence at Karnal, at the former Central Cattle Breeding Farm.Bangalore facilities became Southern Regional Station of the Institute.
B.Sc. Dairying bifurcated into two branches, namely B.Sc. (Dairy Technology) and B.Sc. (Dairy Husbandry); M.Sc. Dairying courses commenced at Karnal.

Western Regional Station established at Bombay.

1964 Eastern Regional Station established at Kalyani (W.B.)
1966 Institute brought under the aegis of ICAR.
1975 Operational Research Project initiated.
1979 M.Sc., Ph.D. Programme in Dairy Engineering commenced at Karnal.
1983 IDD (DH) started at Bangalore.
“Farm Advisory Bureau” and “Industrial Consultancy Cell” set up.  The Institute recognised as Centre of Excellence in Animal Biotechnology.
1987 Embryo Biotechnology Centre established.
The Institute granted “Deemed to be University” status. M.Sc. in Biotechnology started.
1990 Birth of Pratham, first IVF buffalo calf of the world.
20 bedded Hospital Complex set up and made functional. National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) funded through World Bank.
The Institute got recognition as Centre of Advanced Studies in Dairy Technology and Dairy Cattle Breeding.
A two-year National Dairy Diploma (NDD) course introduced at Southern Regional Station of NDRI at Bangalore. The ICAR award (1993-94) for outstanding KVK conferred on the KVK located at NDRI.
A state-of-the-art Auditorium having seating capacity of 950 and 2 conference rooms and 2 meeting rooms made functional.A commercial Model Dairy Plant with a capacity of 60,000 lit./ day commissioned for providing practical training to the students of NDRI University and to serve as an interface between Institute and Industry.
A Modern Cafeteria with a seating capacity of 150 constructed in front of the Institute Hostels at the cost of 29 lakhs.
1999 Total no. of 9 NATP Projects with financial outlay of 266.25 lakhs initiated.

NDRI bagged the best Annual Report Award second time in succession for the years 1996-97 and 1997-98 in the category of large ICAR Institutes. A Guest House with two suites named as “Kamdhenu” was constructed at SRS, Bangalore. Platinum Jubilee of the Institute celebrated on 7-8th April 2000 at SRS, Bangalore. Web-site of NDRI launched on 23rd December 2000.

2002 International Students’ Hostel equipped with modern facilities and amenities constructed at NDRI, Karnal. Feed Quality Control Lab. established.
2003 State-of-the-art milking parlour system introduced in cattle section
2004 First IVF goat kid born at NDRI. ATIC centre opened Farmers and Industry.
2006 New Animal Biotechnology Centre commissioned.
2007 Creation of Video Conferencing Lab and Mini Auditorium.
  • Golden Jubilee of Dairy Science College celebrated. Academic Programmes of NDRI Deemed University accredited by the Accreditation Board of ICAR for a period of 5 years.
  • Eleven NAIP Projects with an outlay of 20 crores initiated.
  • World First Cloned Buffalo Calf and second cloned calf “Garima” produced by hand-guided cloning technique at NDRI.
  • DST supported Technology Business Incubator (TBI) facility made functional.
  • New Course Curricula for B.Tech in Dairy Technology and Masters and Doctoral Programmes introduced.
  • Reforms in examination system, grading system and introduction of comprehensive exam. for Ph.D. programme introduced.

8th Convocation of NDRI, Deemed University held in presence of Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, Former President of India.

  • M.Sc. in Forage Production Introduced
  • National Academy of Dairy Sciences Launched
  • Centre of Excellence in Milk Safety established
  • NDRI Recognised as Centre of Advanced Faculty Training (CAFT) in the Disciplines of Dairy Production and Dairy Processing.

Sahiwal Calf “Holi” through Ovum Pick up (OPU-IVF) technique born on 7th March, 2012.

  • First female calf named ‘Mahima’ was born to a cloned buffalo on 25th January 2013.
  • A male cloned buffalo calf named ‘Swarn’ was born on 18th March 2013. Donor somatic cell used was isolated from the seminal plasma of an elite bull.

A Diploma in Dairy Technology started at Southern Regional Station, Bangalore

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  • Conducting research in the areas of Dairy Production, Processing and Marketing.
  • Demand driven ‘Human Resource Development’ to meet the requirements of Dairy Industry & R&D Institutions.
  • Dissemination of innovative dairy production and processing technologies for socio-economic transformations
NDRI Deemed University
The first formal Dairy Technology course was started in India at NDRI in 1957. Over the past five decades, the Institute has produced more than 2,000 Dairy Diploma holders, 1,174 dairy graduates, 1,903 post-graduates at Masters level and 873 at Doctorate level in different disciplines of Dairying. Deemed University status was conferred on the Institute in 1989, for further strengthening its academic programmes. NDRI Deemed University provides high quality education in the field of dairying, which has no parallel in Asia. The programmes of NDRI Deemed University are constantly reviewed and updated to impart requisite knowledge levels to the graduates to make them academically proficient in meeting the emerging global challenges. Supplementary to the classroom teaching, one-year in-plant training in an industrial environment providing an opportunity to the NDRI students to manage dairy processing jobs in a commercial milieu, is an outstanding feature of the B. Tech (Dairy Technology) programme. A Placement Cell of the Institute provides career guidance, training and placement services for the students. NDRI post-graduate students provide the core faculty for the State Agricultural Universities in Dairy and allied disciplines and also serve the ICAR, CSIR and other National Laboratories as scientists. Alumni of this Institute occupy responsible positions in dairy industry and in R&D institutions and universities, both in India and abroad.
The Institute offers well-structured comprehensive courses and the students are in high demand also in non-dairying Organisations such as medical institutions, pharmaceutical industry, finance sector, etc. Many of our graduates have established themselves as leading entrepreneurs, who have set up their own dairy enterprises dealing with dairy equipment design and fabrication, dairy products manufacture and IT industry.

The Institute has also been recognized as Centre of Advanced Studies in the disciplines of Animal Genetics & Breeding and Dairy Technology to further strengthen its HRD activities. The valuable scientific expertise that the Institute has gained in tropical dairying is being shared with the scientific community through specially designed international training courses. There are 30 such courses offered, covering contemporary knowledge base for addressing problems related to animal breeding, feeding, milk processing and marketing.

The Institute continues to attract international students from a host of countries such as Nepal, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Myanmar, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Holland, Egypt and many other countries for training and education in Dairying. Advanced training imparted to the faculty members under various collaborative programmes has immensely helped in improving the quality of research, teaching and consultancy.

NDRI students' community presents a cosmopolitan ambience at the campus and despite heavy load of curriculum, our students allocate some of their time to give expression to their creative talents through cultural and sports events. Their valued participation in inter-institutional competitions has brought laurels to the Institute.

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Research & Development
The R&D activities of the Institute mainly focus on three fundamental facets of Dairying i.e. production and management of dairy animals for better productivity, innovating suitable milk processing technologies and equipments, and providing the dairy farmers and entrepreneurs with information about existing market demands and practical management inputs for making dairying a self-sustaining, profitable business. Research, both in basic and applied aspects, in various disciplines constitute the core activity of the Institute.
Continued research efforts on genetic improvement of dairy animals has resulted into development of superior strains of dairy cattle namely 'Karan-Fries' and 'Karan-Swiss' which are suitable for Indian agro-climatic conditions both at organized farm and field levels. These synthetic strains have been evolved by crossing the Tharparkar and Sahiwal  as indigenous breeds with Holstein-Friesian and Brown Swiss, respectively, using scientific breeding methodologies.
The young bulls of Sahiwal and Karan-Fries cattle and Murrah buffaloes produced through nominated matings are progeny-tested to select genetically superior bulls with higher breeding values. As a part of the germplasm dissemination programme, frozen semen from high pedigreed and progeny-tested bulls is distributed to different state government establishments, NGOs and other developmental agencies. Advanced genome techniques are used to identify animals with better production and reproduction attributes. Molecular interventions for augmenting reproduction, clean milk production and post-milking improvement of milk quality, development of suitable animal-shelter management systems and environmental aspects of dairy development have helped to work out a well defined package of practices for different production categories of animals.  Faster multiplication of superior animals using Embryo Transfer Technology and other Embryo Bio-techniques constitutes the core research efforts in the area of Animal Biotechnology at the Institute. By refinement of this technology, it was made possible to produce more than 10 calves from an elite female in one calendar year. NDRI has the distinction of producing first test tube buffalo calf of the world, 'Pratham', using a highly sophisticated technique of in vitro fertilization and Embryo Transfer. The technology has now been extended to develop goat as a model animal for advanced research in transgenic animal production. The country's first in vitro goat kid was born at NDRI. Research in animal physiology has helped in detailed endocrine profiling of animals to ameliorate heat stress, better reproduction management and inducing lactation which essentially augment the production level of animals.

The nutritive value of poor quality roughages and agro-industrial by-products used as animal feed has been improved significantly by employing chemical and physical methods. Improved varieties of fodder crops and their cultivation methods have been developed at the Institute. Recently, wheat as a dual-purpose crop has been successfully tested at this Institute. Research on balanced feed formulation has resulted in development of complete and enriched feed/ mineral blocks for sustaining production level in high producing animals. Research is being carried out for manipulation of rumen fermentation and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by animals. Bypass protein technology has been developed for meeting the nutrient needs of high yielding animals.
In the area of Dairy Processing research, the Institute has developed technologies for the manufacture of a variety of indigenous dairy products like khoa and khoa-based sweets, chhana and chhana-based sweets, srikhand, rabri, paneer, long-life lassi, extended shelf-life rice kheer and Milk-cake, etc. Technologies of kunda of Karnataka, chhana-podo of Orissa and kraddi of  Jammu & Kashmir have been standardized. 

Several innovative ready-to-reconstitute formulations for the manufacture of khoa, gulabjamun, rasogolla, kulfi, rasmalai, basundi, kheer, dalia, gase-gase payasam,  paneer-curry and Cheese-poorie are available for adoption at industrial scale. The formulated foods evolved at this Institute include whey-based lassi and flavoured drink, weaning foods based on whey/skim milk, soy-butter milk softy, malted milk food, whey- based soups and low-fat spreads. New functional dairy products (or 'health foods') such as probiotic cheese and dahi, sports drinks, low cholesterol ghee, herbal ghee, ice-cream and burfi for diabetics, and a formulation for cardio-vascular health have also been developed. A food-grade bacteriocin based bio-preservative formulation has also been developed for enhancing the shelf life of paneer and khoa.  Equipments have been designed for both small scale dairy operations and mechanized production. Some of the equipments suitable for adoption by the Indian dairy industry are continuous paneer, ghee, khoa and rasogolla-making machines.

A kit developed for the detection of various adulterants in milk is in high demand among dairymen across the country. Recently a bio-sensor based kit for detection of antibiotic-drug residues in milk, and also a test of detection of the presence of synthetic milk in normal milk have been evolved. The Institute maintains a National Collection of Dairy Cultures (NCDC) that supplies starter cultures to the industry and institutions across the country.

Recent developments in Biotechnology have opened up new and exciting possibilities both in Dairy Production and Processing. Some of the magic tools of Biotechnology such as Genetic Engineering, Somatic Cell Cloning, Establishment of Stem Cells, Hybridoma Technology, Transgenics and Bioprocess Engineering are currently being explored to develop commercial products and processes that use living systems to provide value added, clean, wholesome and nutritious high quality products which are within the reach of the common people. The success of these programmes would prepare India's Dairy Industry to face the newer challenges of global competition. It would permit greater value addition to processed products by improving the nutritional and therapeutic attributes and ensure higher returns to the farmer.

In the areas of Dairy Management and Extension a Composite Management Index for bovines as a determinant for enhancing milk production has been developed. Economic feasibility report for dairy farms and milk plants, and impact of developmental programmes including constraint analysis for dairy and crop production system have been evaluated. Bench-mark surveys and cost studies using various knowledge and Management Information System (MIS) have been conducted for estimation of cost of milk production, and understanding the behavior of milk producers and consumers.

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The scientific competence and excellence in conducting various research programmes at the Institute has attracted funds from various National and International Organisations/agencies. To exchange information and acquire current and advanced knowledge in basic and applied fields of Dairy Science, the Institute maintains close liaison with various ICAR/CSIR Institutes, Dept. of Biotechnology, Dept. of Science and Technology, NDDB, Ministry of Food Processing & Industry, SAUs and various
Government Agencies at State and National levels, and several International Organisations such as World Bank, IAEA, UNDP, IDF, DAAD, Volkswagen Foundation AVH Foundation and several leading institutions in the UK, USA, Canada, Germany, Netherlands and Australi.
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The sprawling 560 ha campus of the Institute is self sufficient in housing laboratories, offices, hostels, hospital, residential complexes, auditorium etc. Various laboratories of the Institute are equipped with the state-of-the-art analytical instruments for carrying out research in most advanced areas of Molecular Biology, Cell Culture, Fermentation Technology, Protein Chemistry, Nutritional Studies, Food Technology, Microbiology, Micro Element Analysis, etc.

The Institute possesses an elite herd of over 1600 dairy animals including cattle, buffaloes and goats which caters to breed improvement projects and other research activities. The highest peak yields of 44 and 46.5 kg have been recorded in Karan-Swiss and Karan-Fries cows, respectively. Through consistent selection, the indigenous cattle breeds, Sahiwal and Tharparkar, have been improved and the highest peak yields of 23 and 19.5 kg milk per day have been obtained in these two breeds, respectively. In Murrah buffaloes, the breed that is known to be the best in the world, the peak milk yield of 22.5 kg in a day has been achieved. A modern Milking Parlor System and Shelter Management System set up recently at the Livestock Farm serve as demonstration models for the progressive farmers and provide infrastructure for conducting research on various aspects of milk production system, reproduction behaviour, growth profile and nutritional requirements for elite milch breeds.
The Experimental Dairy Plant with facilities to process milk into a variety of products provides necessary infrastructure for experimentation on new product/process development and meeting the training needs of students in pilot-scale dairy plant operations. The Model Dairy Plant with the most modern equipment and process automation, and a processing capacity of 60,000 liters of milk per day has been established with the collaboration of NDDB to provide hands-on training facilities to the B. Tech. students of NDRI Deemed University and

for scientists to carry out scaling up of operations for products and processes developed in the research laboratories. The Plant has acquired ISO 9002 and HACCP Certifications.

NDRI has in its fold a National Library for Dairying, which has over 90,000 documents on Dairying and allied disciplines. The library subscribes to 250 Indian and foreign journals and caters to the needs of the scholars of NDRI and the sister institutions within the country. It is adequately equipped with facilities like Internet, Documentation, Reference, Current Awareness Services, CD-ROM, Photocopying, Literature & Documentation Scanning services.

The Computer Centre tagged with Agricultural Research Information System (ARIS) and Biotechnology Information System (BTIS) is engaged in multifarious academic and service providing activities like monitoring management information, maintaining databases, software development, data analysis, graphic applications and Bioinformatics for the benefit of staff and students through the establishment of Local Area Network (LAN).

A new state-of- the-art research facility with 60,000 square feet of laboratory space has been created recently to give further fillip to research in Animal Biotechnology at NDRI. The Institute has recently taken up steps to start new activities like establishment of Technology Business Incubator (TBI) facility at NDRI to promote entrepreneurship and wider application of technologies developed here and efforts are being made to establish a National Referral Laboratory for analysis of milk, milk products, feed and fodder.

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Technology Transfer: Farmers First
Dairy Farmers who have played a crucial role in ushering white revolution in the country remain the central theme of all the R&D activities of the Institute. The Farming System Research approach used by NDRI in adopted villages has made significant contributions to the economic prosperity of the farming communities. New scientific know-how on animal husbandry including milk and crop production has been transferred by means of Grameen Dairy Melas, Calf Rallies, Veterinary Camps,

Women Agriculture Days, Field Days and on-farm demonstrations. More than 10,000 milk-producing households under various farm-level programmes have benefitted through these continuing activities. A major Pilot Project on Technology Assessment and Refinement through Institution - Village Linkage Programme (IVLP) has also been completed to identify available resources, production systems, problems in agriculture and animal husbandry and gender-related issues affecting rural development.

Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) and Dairy Training Centre (DTC) at NDRI conduct regular training programmes Farmers and rural women in order to acquaint them with modern dairy farming practices.  Since its inception in 1976, more than 3000 training programmes for various categories of end users have benefitted more than 57,000 rural youths, school drop-outs, farm women, farmers and ex-servicemen. The Dairy Extension Division of the Institute has developed information packages in the form of video films and multimedia packages on clean milk production, hygienic milk processing and packaging and scientific calf rearing based on Information and Communication Techniques (ICT). Mechanisms for transforming the output of R&D efforts into viable technologies are being further strengthened by establishing National Demonstration Centers. Keeping in view the significance of ICT in relation to Transfer of Technology (TOT) in the current scenario, the Agricultural Technology Information Center (ATIC) of the Institute works as a single window delivery system for all queries related to technologies available at the Institute.

The Institute continues to share its innovative dairy processing technologies with the Indian Dairy Industry through the Consultancy Processing Cell. Some of the technologies that have been recently transferred are those of long-life paneer, whey- jaljeera drink, instant banana milk mix, payasam mix, gulabjamun mix, calcium-enriched milk, emulsifier mix for frozen desserts, Herbal ghee etc.

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