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Home - Divisions - Animal Biochemistry
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Animal Biochemistry
Research Activities & Achievements Faculty Profile
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The Division of Animal Biochemistry came in to being in September 1984 with the merger of the discipline of Animal Biochemistry of Dairy Chemistry Division and the Division of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Research endeavors of the Division are presently directed towards development of probiotic foods, dairy nutraceuticals and their mechanism of action, validation of health benefit claims of Indian dairy products, characterization of genes related to fertility in buffalo, signal transduction mechanism in sperm functions, identification of fertility markers, spermatogonial stem cell and bioinformatics researches.

The salient research achievements of the Division are:  Validation of health-benefits of dairy ghee in attenuation of coronary heart diseases, G.I. tract and mammary cancer and improvement of immune system; Development of probiotic dahi (Acidophilus bifidus and Acidophilus casei) for combating coronary heart disease and colon cancer and improvement of immune system; Bioavailability of vitamins and minerals from dairy products; Characterization and sequencing of milk lysozyme and detection of sub-clinical mastitis; Levels of conjugated linoleic acid in milk products; Anti-aging attributes of an Ayurvedic preparation, Maharish Amrit Kalash; Immobilization of ?-galactosidase and its application in production of low lactose milk; Characterization and regulation of a spectrum of 8 amino acid transport systems in mammary gland; Hormonal profile of reproductive phases of buffalo; Elucidation of biochemical changes in sperm maturation, capacitation, acrosome reaction and semen freezing; Expression and hormonal regulation of mRNAs encoding IGF and its receptor, IGFBPs, PAPP-A, TNF-?  and aromatase during buffalo estrous cycle; SSCP analysis of CYP19 gene in anestrus buffaloes; Elucidation of transduction pathways (PI3K and MAPK) in cattle granulosa cells during in vitro steroidogenesis and apoptosis. Also, division has contributed to research on hybridomas, immunosuppressor proteins, and growth hormone receptor.

The contributions of the Division have been amply recognized by three Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Memorial Awards, Dr. P. G. Nair Award, two Jawahar Lal Nehru Award, Young Scientist Award, IUIS/FIMSA Travel Bursary Award, Best publication award and several paper presentation awards. In addition Division has filed three patents and developed technologies for different types of probiotic dahi

The Division is headed by Head of Division. There are four Principal Scientist and five Senior Scientists. Division is offering Masters and Doctoral degree courses in Animal Biochemistry. The Division has Central Instruments Room that houses expensive equipments and are available to all users. Small Animal House is Central facilities managed by Animal Biochemistry Division.

Research Activities & Achievements
Ongoing projects (Institute & externally funded)


  1. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of alamethicin and phospholipids from alamethicin sensitive and resistance pathogenic/spoilage G+ve bacteria (S K Sood, &  P. R. Sinha; 2007-09)
  2. Studies in relation to prebiotic effectiveness of certain   carbohydrates for development of synbiotic fermented milk product (R.K. Sharma; 2007-09)
  3. Assessment and prevention of capacitation like changes during cryopreservation of buffalo spermatozoa ( S.K.Atreja, Dheer Singh, M.S. Chauhan and V.S. Raina; 2008-10)
  4. Gene silencing in buffalo granulosa cells using RNA interference (Dheer Singh and  S.K. Atreja; 2008- 10)
  5. Cryopreservation of spermatogonial stem cells (Gautam Kaul, R C Upadhyay and S K Atreja: 2006-09)
  6.  Immunomodulatory and bone health promoting biofunctional peptides of milk origin ( Suman Kapila,  A.K. Dang, Sumit Aroraand Rajeev Kapila; 2007- 09)
  7. Evaluation of hyper immune properties of milk proteins and their oral tolerance. (Rajeev Kapila, V.K.Kansal, Suman Kapila and  Ajay Dang ; 2009-11)
  8. Computer aided design and Development of pediocin analogs to combat resistance in pathogenic/ food spoilage G+ve bacteria
    (S. K. Sood, V. K Kansal, and A. K. Mohanty, Sr. Scientist, ;2009 to 11)
  9. Buffalo spermatozoa functionality as affected by nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes. (Gautam Kaul, A K Gupta, S K Tomar and Rajeev Kapila; 2009-2011)

  1. Fertility performance and analysis of Cyp19 gene regulation  in buffalo (Dheer Singh,  T.K. Mohanty and  M.S. Chauhan; July’07-July’10)
  2. Comparative analysis of epigenetic regulation of the Cyp19 gene in buffalo and cattle. A collaborative project funded by DST-DFG. Dheer Singh (Aug. 2008-10).
  3. Molecular basis of capacitation like changes in the assessment and prevention of cryodamage during cryopreservation of bovine spermatozoa (buffalo and crossbred bulls). S.K. Atreja, (CPI, NAIP), Dheer Singh, A.K.Mohanty, V.S.Raina, T.K. Mohanty and Rajeev Aggarwal (Jan.2009 - March.2012).
  4. Detection and mitigation of dairy pathogens and detection of adulterants using chemical biology. Y.S. Rajput (CCPI, NAIP), Rajan Sharma, and Naresh Kumar (Jan.2009 - March.2012).
Important Research Findings
Animal Production:

  • In vitro sperm capacitation models for Goat, Buffalo and Karan Fries Cattle developed for use in IVF protocols.
  • L-Arginine is a better capacitating agent for buffalo spermatozoa than heparin.
  • Cholesterol efflux, intracellular Ca2+, intracellular pH and protein tyrosine phosphorylation changes as signaling events studied during capacitation of buffalo spermatozoa
  • IGF-I, Stroid acute regulatory protein (StAR), CYP19 (aromatase) and growth hormone receptor gene in buffalo sequenced.
  • Part sequences of PAPP-A, IGFBP –2, IGFBP –4, IGFBP –5 , IGF-II   genes in buffalo determined.
  • Expression and hormonal regulation of both IGF-I & -II mRNA and their receptors in buffalo ovary during estrous cycle studied
  • The profile of hormones determined during reproduction and lactation in buffalo.
  • Freezing of goat and buffalo spermatozoa and assessment of ultrastructural damage and leakage of acrosomal enzymes during freezing of semen determined
  • A 65 KDa immunosuppressive protein from buffalo placenta identified and characterized.
  • The activation of signaling molecules in action of growth hormone in buffalo identified
  • Monoclonal antibodies against bovine growth hormone prepared and used for assessing epitopic structure of hormone. MAbs also used for raising anti-idiotypic antibodies.
  • The method for identification of Spermatogonial stem cells validated.
  • Generation of various Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and associated generating systems during buffalo sperm capacitation studied.
  • CAMP dependent and independent pathways mediate protein tyrosine phosphorylation during capacitation of buffalo spermatozoa.
  • Tyrosine phosphorylated proteins have been localized mainly on buffalo sperm flagellum during the course of capacitation
  • Detection and localization of Angiotensin-II type1 receptors on buffalo sperm surface.
  • Production of intracellular signaling molecules (DAG, LPC and Cis PUFA) on catabolism of sperm membranes phospholipids determined
  • Cryopreserved spermatozoa are weaker in defense against oxidative stress and produce higher levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation.
  • Spermine NONOate a nitric oxide releasing compound maintained better motility and capacitation compared to heparin under in vitro capacitation conditions.

Dairy Processing

  • Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body fat mass by decreasing fatty acid biosynthesis and by increasing fatty acid oxidation. Non-fat milk enhances the body slimming effects of CLA
  • Dietary calcium has hypocholesterolemic effect and the dairy calcium is more efficacious.
  • Cow ghee opposed to vegetable oil decreases Phase I pathways activities of carcinogen activation and increases Phase II pathways activities of carcinogen detoxification
  • Cow ghee opposed to vegetable oil decreases incidence and progression of tumors in DMBA induced rats. The mechanism involves decreased expression of COX-2, cyclin A and cyclin D and increased expression of PPAR-gamma genes
  • Dairy ghee decreased gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in rats. The efficacy of cow ghee was batter than that of buffalo ghee. The mechanism of protective effect involves i) increased accumulation of CLA and decreased lipid peroxidation in tissues ii) decreased activation of pro-carcinogens and increased detoxification of carcinogens.
  • Ghee attenuates dietary hypercholesteremia and decreases atherogenic index by increasing serum HDL and decreasing triglycerides, and cow ghee is more efficacious than buffalo ghee
  • Cow ghee, opposed to soybean oil, stimulates immune function and antioxidant status. 
  • Indian Dahi stimulates antioxidant status and body immune system, and protects against enteric infection in mice challenged with Shigella dysenterae.
  • Acidophilus-bifidus- probiotic dahi has been developed. It combats gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, coronary heart diseases and improves body immune system and anti-oxidative status.
  • Evaluated several strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum for probiotic attributes and developed three types of probiotic dahi for enhanced efficacy to combat dietary hypercholesterolaemia. 
  • Levels of CLA in milk in different species determined. Effects of body physiology, climate, feed and milk processing on CLA levels determined 
  • A simple and reliable method, based on milk-lysozyme activity, has been developed for detection of sub-clinical mastitis.
  • The buffalo milk lysozyme purified, sequenced and characterized for biochemical and antibacterial properties.  Its specific activity is 10 times greater than that of bovine milk lysozyme.
  • Hypocholesterolaemic and anti-atherogenic properties of non-fat milk established and its mechanism elucidated.
  • Two new transport systems, which we have named BCl- -dependent and BCl- -independent, have been characterized in mammary gland.  These are broad specificity systems.
  • A spectrum of 8 systems has been characterized for the transport of amino acids in mouse mammary gland.  The regulation and induction of these transporters by lactogenic hormones at the onset of lactation has been delineated.
  • Biochemical mechanism for anti-ageing properties of an Ayurvedic preparation-`Maharishi Amrit Kalash’ has been elucidated.
  • Biological availability of calcium from milk and dairy products is the best among the entire food spectrum.  Incorporation of milk in mixed diets improves the utilization of calcium from vegetable foods
  •  Process for the preparation of probiotic dahi  & lassi has been developed. The porbiotic dahi exhibited anticholesterolemic, immunomodulatory ,antidiabetogenic, anicarcinogenic effects.
  • Feeding probiotic dahi and wheat bran together enhanced antioxidative and chemopreventive property against colon cancer and reduced ?- glucuronidase and ?- glucosidase activities. 
  • Antioxidative, hypocholesterolemic and immunomodulatory properties of Lactobacillus casei ssp casei NCDC 19 established. 
  • Immunomodulatory response of Dahi, yoghurt and Lactobacillus helveticus fermented milks was studied. The immunomodulatory attributes of dahi were better than yoghurt.
  •  Reduced sensitivity among Gram-positive bacteria to barrel-stave pore-forming antimicrobial peptide alamethicin is due to decrease in its interactions with the altered membrane phospholipids. 
  •  Three different types of food grade gels compared for entrapment of cells of S. thermophilus containing b-galactosidase. Calcium alginate gel beads exhibited superior mechanical properties and good retention of b-galactosidase activity as compared to k-carrageenan and gellan-xanthan gel beads.
  • b-galactosidase from S. thermophilus exhibited higher transgalactosylation activity than from L. delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus.
  • Milk fermented with Lactobacillus bulgaricus or L. casei exhibited protective effect against Aflatoxin B1 toxicity in rats.
Linkage with international organization
Project/PI Collaborating Agency
A joint Indo-German research project titled ‘Comparative analysis of epigenetic regulation of the Cyp19 gene in buffalo and cattle’ under Indo-German (DST-DFG) collaborative research programme. (Indian PI: Dr Dheer Singh; German PI : Dr. Jens Vanselow, Group Leader, Gene expression Laboratory; Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals (FBN); Forschungsinstitut fur die Biologie landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere (FBN), Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany ); Project duration: Two years (Aug. 2008-2010).
Linkage with sister R & D Organization
Project/PI Collaborating Agency

Molecular basis of capacitation Like changes in the assessment and prevention of cryodamage during cryopreservation of bovine spermatozoa (Buffalo and crossbred Bulls). (Dr. S.K. Atreja, CPI)

Detection and mitigation of dairy pathogens and detection of adulterants using chemical biology. (Dr. Y.S. Rajput, CCPI) NAIP
Development of probiotic dahi for immune system modulation, cholesterol lowering and anti-carcinogenic attributes. (Dr.V.K. Kansal, PI) DBT
Fertility performance and analysis of Cyp19 gene regulation in buffalo. (Dr.Dheer Singh, PI) DBT
Comparative analysis of epigenetic regulation of the Cyp19 gene in buffalo and cattle. (Dheer Singh, PI) DST-DFG
Technologies and patents
The following processes/ design have submitted/ granted patents

  • A process for the preparation of the probiotic dahi (V. K. Kansal and Sonal Rajpal; Application No. 639/DEL/2007 dated 23-3-07)
  • Preparation of probiotic dahi (P.R.Sinha and Vibha; Application No. 1077/DEL/2006  dated 27.4.06)
  • A simple and efficient microdialysis assembly for dialysis of samples in microlitre volumes (R. Sodhi, and Y.S. Rajput, Patent No. 195230, Application No. 245/Del/2002 granted on 24-11-2006)
  • A process for calcium enrichment of buffalo milk. (P. Ranjan, S. Arora, , J. S. Sindhu, G.  Singh, and V. K. Kansal Application  No. 2735/DEL/2006 dated 20-12-06)
  • A multipurpose device for protein concentration, dialysis and buffer exchange of protein solution and a process for the same (Rajput, Y.S. and Divya, M.P. Application No. 1703/Del/2006 Dated 25-7-2006).
  • A kit for detection of detergent in milk (Rajput, Y.S., Sharma, R and Kaur, S. Application No. 1970/Del/2006 Dated 4-9-2006)
Awards and Recognitions

The Division has received three Rafi Ahmed Kidwai awards given to Dr. N.C.Ganguli, Dr. S.R. Anand and Dr. R.S.Pandey for their pioneer work in the areas of male and female reproduction leading to understanding of biochemical processes in buffalo. Dr. V.K. Kansal has been honoured with Dr. P. G. Nair Award for outstanding work in dairying on characterization and regulation of amino acid transport systems at induction of lactation. Dr.(Mrs) P.R. Sinha begged ‘VI Sukumar Basu Memorial Award’  for her contribution to developing process for preparation of   probiotic dahi. The Division has distinction of receiving two Jawahar Lal Nehru Award for the PhD students (Seema Mehta and S C Roy ) who worked  under the guidance of Dr. Y. S. Rajput and Dr.S.K. Atreja. Young Scientist Award and Best publication awards were conferred upon to Dr. Gautam Kaul and Dr. V. K. Kansal, respectively. Dr. Rajeev Kapila was awarded Life Fellow of the Academy of Environmental Biology, India. The Asian-Australian Association of Animal Production Societies c/o Korean Society of Animal Science & Technology awarded Dr. Dheer Singh 9th AJAS/CAPI Outstanding Research Award. Besides, more than 10 best poster/ oral presentation awards have been received for presenting work in scientific conferences.

Dr. V.K. Kansal was invited to deliver a Plenary Lecture in “World Congress on Calcium and Vitamin D in Human Life” held in Rome, in 1996. He was also invited by International Dairy Federation to speak in 26 IDF World Dairy Congress held in Paris in 2002.

Three scientists (Dr. V. K. Kansal. Dr. G. Kaul and Dr. Dheer Singh) were awarded overseas post-doctoral fellowship from agencies Department of Science and Technology and Ministry of Education, Govt. of India. Another four scientists (Dr. Y. S. Rajput, Dr. P. R. Sinha, Dr. M. K. Sharma and Dr. S. K. Atreja) also received training abroad under different programmes for advancement in scientific knowledge in foreign countries. Ph.D. student, Miss Tulika, was awarded ‘Commonwealth Split-site Scholarship tenable in the United Kingdom 2008’ to work at Imperial College London.

          Year 2009

  1. Haque, E., Chand, R. and Kapila, S. (2009).Biofunctional properties of bioactive  peptides of milk origin. Food Reviews International 25(1):28-43.
  2. Kapila, R. Pant, R., Gaur, A.K. and Mahanta, P.C. (2009) Effect of low temperature on metabolic enzymes and HSP-70 expression of coldwater fish Barilius bendelisis, Asian Fisheries Science 22:125-136.
  3. Rajpal, S. and Kansal, V. K. (2009) Probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum stimulates antioxidant enzyme pathways in rats. Milchwissenschaft , in press
  4. Rajpal, S and Kansal, V. K. (2009) Probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum stimulates immune system in mice. Milchwissenschaft , in press
  5. Rajpal, S and Kansal, V. K. (2009) Probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum attenuates diet induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Milchwissenschaft  64 (1) 21-25
  6. Sharma, R., Lal. D., Seth, R., Wadhwa, B.K. and Rajput, Y.S. (2009). Lactic acid and titratable acidity measurement in formalin preserved milk. Indian J. Dairy Sci., (in press)
  7. Sivaraman, G.K., Kapila, R. and Mahanta, P.C. (2009). RNA-DNA ratios as an indicator of fish growth in golden mahseer (Tor putitora) Asian Fisheries Science 22:117-123.

    Year 2008

  8. Bhardwaj,  A.,  Kapila, S.,  Mani, J.  and  Malik, R.  (2008) Comparison of      susceptibility to opsonic killing by in vitro human immune response of Enterococcus     strains isolated from dairy   products, clinical samples and probiotic   preparation.    International Journal of Food Microbiology, 128:513-515
  9. Dang, A.K., Kapila, S.,Singh, C. and Sehgal, J.P. (2008). Milk differential cell counts and compositional changes in cows during different physiological stages.  Milchwissenschaft  63(3): 239-242
  10. Meena, K., Kapila, S.,  Chand,  R., Haque, E.,  Singh, S  and  Aggarwal,  P. K.           (2008). Immunomodulatory effect of oral administration of milk fermented with      Lactobacillus  helveticus. Milchwissenschaft  63(1):27-29.
  11. Kapila, S., Jain, S., Haque, E. Sabikhi, L and Dang A.K.(2008).Immunoregulatory response of Lactobacillus helveticus fermented milk in mice Milchwissenschaft  63(4): 367-369.
  12. Kumar,a. Singh, N.K. and Sinha,P.R (2008) Production of conjugated linoleicacid by probiotic microorganisms utilizing milk fat. International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics.3(1),61-64.
  13. Rajpal, S. and Kansal, V. K. (2008) Buffalo milk probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactococcus lactis reduces gastrointestinal cancer induced by dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride in rats. Milchwissenschaft (Germany), 63:122-125
  14. Roy, S.C and Atreja S. K. (2008) Capacitation associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation starts early in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as compared to cattle spermatozoa. Animal Reproduction Science, doi 10.101b/j Elsevier BV 2008.01.021.
  15. Roy, S.C and Atreja S. K. (2008) Effect of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) on capacitation associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa.  Animal Reproduction Science, doi 10.101b/j Elsevier BV 2007.06.024.
  16. Roy, S.C. and Atreja S.K. (2008) Production of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide by capacitating buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa. Animal Reproduction Science, 103(3-4): 260-270
  17. Sharma, R., Kaur, S., Rajput, Y. S., and Kumar, R. (2008). Activity and thermal stability of indigenous enzymes in cow, buffalo and goat milk. Milchwissenschaft (Accepted)
  18. Sharma, R., Rajput, Y.S., Kaur, S and Tomar, S.K. (2008). A method for estimation of urea using ammonia electrode and its applicability to milk samples. Journal Dairy Res.(in press)
  19. Sodhi, R. and Rajput, Y.S. (2008). Differentiation and de-differntiation of buffalo adipose tissue. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 78 (1), 2-32.
  20. Tiwari,A; Singh, D; Kumar, O. S; and Sharma, M.K (2008) Expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase transcripts in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) ejaculated spermatozoa and its relationship with sperm motility. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 34, 238-249.
  21. Vishnoi, P.C., Dang, A. K., Kapila, S.  (2008). In vitro phagocytic activity of  neutophils   isolated from blood, milk of murrah buffaloes with clinical mastitis. Buffalo Journal (in press)
  22. Yadav, H. Jain, S. and  Sinha,P.R. (2008) The effect of probiotic dahi        containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei on gastropathic         consrquences in diabetic rats. J. Med. Food.11(1) 62-68

    Year 2007

  23. Charles, S.J.A., Rajput, Y.S. and Sharma, R. (2007). Status of insulin like growth factors and related molecules in milk. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 60 : 71-76.
  24. Dang, A.K., Kapila, S.,  Tomar, A.K.  and  Singh,C. (2007). Immunity of buffalo mammary gland under different physiological stages. Asian Australasian Journal 20(8):1174-1181.
  25. Dang, A.K., Kapila, S., Tomer, P. and Singh, C. (2007). Relationship of blood and milk cell counts with mastitic pathogens in Murrah buffaloes. Ital.J.Anim.Sci. 6, (Suppl.2):821-824.
  26. Divya, M.P. and Rajput, Y.S. (2007). A multipurpose device for protein concentration, dialysis and buffer exchange. Curr. Sci  93 : 454-456.
  27. Jain, S.,Yadav, H. and Sinha,P.R. (2007) Immunomodulatory  potential by oral feeding of probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and  Lactobacillus casei in mice. International Journal of  Probiotics and Prebiotics. 2 (2/3) 131-136.
  28. Kapila,S.,  Sinha, P.R. and Singh, S. (2007). Influence of feeding fermented milk and   non-fermented  milk  containing Lactobacillus casei on  immune response in mice. Food and Agricultural Immunology. 18(1):75-82.
  29. Kaul,G., Anand, S.R., Gandhi,K.K.,  Sharma, G.S. and  Singh, S. (2007). 47 and 31 kDa sperm surface antigens as the goat zona receptors'. Archives of Andrology (in press)
  30. Madhusudan, G.P; Dev, R; Sharma, M.K; and Singh, D (2007) Expression of mRNA encoding tumor necrosis factor-? and recreptor-1 in buffalo. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 45,669-675.
  31. Malhotra, N; Singh, D; and Sharma, M.K (2007) Molecular cloning and hormonal regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene in buffalo ovary. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci, 20,184-193.
  32. Roy, S.C. and Atreja S.K. (2007) Tyrosine phosphorylation in a 38-kDa capacitation associated buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm proteins is induced by L-Arginine and regulated through a cAMP/PKA independent pathway. International Journal of Andrology, 31(1): 12-24.
  33. Sharma, R., Rajput, Y. S., Dogra, G. and Tomer, S. K. (2007).  Estimation of vitamin B12 by ELISA   and its status in milk. Milchwissenschaft, 62 (2) : 127-130.
  34. Sharma,R., Lal,D., Seth,R., Wadhwa, B.K. and Rajput, Y.S. (2007). Applicability of lactic acid estimation methods in milk in presence of additives. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 60 (6), 399-404.
  35. Singh, N.K. Sinha,P.R. (2007) Protective potential of probiotics against Colon cancer-Mechanistic Consideration. Indian Journal of Dairy Science,60,(4) 223-229.
  36. Singh, G, Arora, S, Sharma, G. S., Sindhu, J. S. and Kansal, V. K. (2007) Heat stability and calcium bioavailability of calcium fortified milk. LWT - Food Science and Technology (Switzerland), 40: 625-631
  37. Singh, N.K. Arvind, and Sinha,P.R. (2007) Chemopreventive effect of probiotic dahi (curd) containg Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei on 1,2 Dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics. 2 (7) 195-202
  38. Sodhi, R. and Rajput, Y.S. (2007). Interaction of Bovine Growth Hormone with Buffalo Adipose Tissue and Identification of Signaling Molecules in its Action.Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20 : 1030-1038.
  39. Vibha, Sinha, P.R and Yadav, H. (2007) Antiatherogenic effect of  Probiotic dahi in rats feed cholesterol enriched diet. Journal of Food Science and        Technology.44(2),127-129.
  40. Yadav, H. Jain, S. and  Sinha,P.R.(2007)Diabetes & probiotics: a possible therapeutic link.  International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics.2(1),21-28
  41. Yadav, H., Jain, S. and Sinha, P.R (2007) Antiddiabetic effect of probiotic dahicontaining Lactobacillus acidophilus and lactobacillus casei  in high fructose fed  rats. Nutrition 23 (1), 62-6
  42. Yadav, H., Jain, Shalini and Sinha,P.R.(2007) Production of free fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acids in probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei during fermentation and storage. International Dairy J. 17 (8) 1006-1010.
  43. Yadav, H. Jain, Shalini, and Sinha, P.R.(2007) Evaluation of changes during storage of probiotic dahi at 70C. International Journal of DairyTechnology 60, (3), 205-21
  44. Yadav,H., Jain, S. Sinha P.R (2007) Formation of oligosaccharides inSkim milk fermented with mixed dahi cultures, Lactococcus lactis ssp.diacetylactis and probiotic strains of lactobacilli. J. Dairy Res. 12,1-6

    Year 2006

  45. Charles, S.J.A., Sharma, R., Rajput, Y.S., Singh, R.R B. (2006). A polarimetric method for the quantitative estimation of added starch in milk.  Indian J. Dairy Sci.59(5): 287-290.
  46. Goel, Anita, Sharma, R. K. and Tandon, H.K.L. (2006) A comparison of different polymeric gels for entrapment of cells of Streptococcus thermophilus containing b- galactosidase  J Food Sci Technol 43(5):596-605
  47. Kapila, S., Vibha and Sinha, P.R. (2006). Antioxidative and hypocholestrolemic effect of Lactobacillus casei ssp casei. Indian J. Med. Sci. 59:361-371.
  48. Kaul,g., Kumar,M.,Gandhi, K.K. and Anand, S.R. (2000). 'Surface protein changes in goat spermatozoa during capacitation' Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 38, 18-25
  49. Onteru,S. K; Sharma, M.K; and Singh, D (2006) DNA isolation from goat blood using different brands of house hold detergents and its downstream application. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 44,852-54.
  50. Singhal, K.K., Kumar, S., Tyagi, A.K. and Rajput, Y.S. ( 2006). Evaluation of Bt cottonseed as a protein supplement in the ration of lactating dairy cows. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 76: 532-537.
  51. Uma, R. and Atreja, S.K. (2006) Antioxidant Enzymes during in vitro capacitation and in relation to fertility Status of buffalo spermatozoa. Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 59(3): 163-166.
  52. Yadav,H. Jain, S. and Sinha,P.R. (2006) Effect of dahi containg Lactococcus         lactis   on the progression of diabetes induced by high fructose diet in rats.Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem.70(5)1255-1258.
  53. Yadav H., Jain S.,and Sinha, P.R (2006) Effect of skim milk and dahi (yoghurt) on  blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile in rats fed with high fructose diet.  J. Med. Food 9 (3),
  54. Yadav, H., Jain S. and Sinha, P.R. (2006) Effect of dahi containing Lactococcus       lactis on the progression of diabetes induced by a high-fructose diet in rats  Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 70 (5) 1255-1258.

    Year 2005

  55. Arora, S., Ranjan, P., Sharma, G. S., Sindhu, J. S., Singh, G. and Kansal, V. K. (2005) Effect of calcium fortification on heat stability and physico-chemical properties of mixed milk (cow and buffalo 1:1) Indian J. Dairy Sci., 58: 242-246
  56. Atreja, S.K. and Anand, S.R. (1985) Phospholipase and Iysophospholipase activity in goat spermatozoa in transit from the caput to the cauda epididymis.  J. Reprod. Fert. (U.K.) 74: 687-691
  57. Bajaj, R.K., Rajput, Y.S., Mann, B., Sangwan, R.B. and Viz, S. (2005). Current status of biochemical and biofunctional properties of lactoferrin: A review. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 58: 233-241.
  58. Kumar, J. S. and Kansal , V. K. (2005) Effects of breed and parity of animals, stage of lactation and processing of milk on the content of conjugated linoleic acid in dairy products. Milchwissenschaft (Germany) 60: 370-372
  59. Ranjan, P., Arora, S., Sindhu, J. S. , Singh, G., and Kansal, V. K. (2005) Bioavailability of calcium and physicochemical properties of calcium fortified buffalo milk. Int. J. Dairy Technol (United Kingdom). 58: 185-189
  60. Singh, G, Arora, S, Sharma, G. S., Sindhu, J. S. and Kansal, V. K. (2005) Sensory and textural profile of dahi from calcium enriched cow milk. Indian J. Dairy Sci.  58: 23-26
  61. Uma R. and Atreja, S.K. (2005) Buffalo sperm in vitro capacitation and fertility related Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Status. Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 58 (6): 400-403.
  62. Yadav, H, Jain S., Kapila, S and Prasad,GBKS. (2005). Internet resources for  Diabetes. Indian J. Med. Sci. 59:32-42.
  63. Yadav,H. Jain, S. and Sinha,P.R. (2005). Preparation of low fat dahi. J. Dairy, Food,Home Sci. 24(3-4) 172-177

    Year 2004

  64. Bansal, P. and Sharma, M. K. (2004). Molecular and functional characterization of a steroidogenic protein from buffalo ovarian follicular fluid. Buffalo J. 20(3): 233-251.
  65. Kansal, V. K. and Sagwal, R. (2004) Dairy calcium and body slimming- A Review. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 57:373-379.
  66. Kaul, G., Gandhi, K.K., Sharma, G.S. & Singh, B. (2004).'Antigens of goat spermatozoa that recognize homologous zona pellucida' Reproduction Domestic Animals 39, 1-8.
  67. Kaul, G., Singh, B., Sharma,G.S. and Gandhi, K.K. (2004).'Capacitation and acrosome reaction in buffalo bull spermatozoa assessed by chlortetracycline and Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC-PSA)'. Theriogenology 55, 1457-1468(2004).
  68. Kumar, P and Atreja, S. K. (2004) Phospholipids of the plasma membrane and outer acrosomal membrane during in vitro capacitation and acrosome reaction of goat spermatozoa. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 57(1): 21-27.
  69. LaVoie,H.A;  Singh, D and Yyonne, Y. H (2004) Concerted Regulation of the Porcine steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Gene Promoter Activity by Follicle-Stimulating Hormones and Insulin-Like Growth Factors I in Granulosa cells Involves GATA-4 and CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein-beta. Endocrinology, 145 (7) 3122-3134.
  70. Shit, Sanjoy and Atreja, S. K. (2004) Phospholipase A2 activation by hydrogen peroxide during in vitro capacitation of buffalo spermatozoa. Indian. J Exptl. Biol. 42:486-90.
  71. Vinze, M., Sharma, M. K. and Singh, D. (2004). Effect of follicular fluid proteins and gonadotropins on progesterone secretion by buffalo granulosa cells in vitro. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 17(11): 1496-1500

    Year 2003

  72. Aftabuddin, Md. and Sinha, P.R.(2003) Survival of lactobacilli in the presence of bile salts and their cell surface hydrophobicity for use as probiotics. Indian J.Dairy Sci. 56 , (6) 366-368.
  73. Aftabuddin,Md. Sinha,P.R.and Samantha,I.(2003). Plasmid DNA  Profile of Lactobacillus  isolates of murine gastrointestinal origin    Indian J. Animal Health.42(1) 38-40 
  74. Dunbar, B S., Kaul, G., Prasad B S M and Skinner, S M. (2003). Molecular approaches for the evaluation of immune responses to zoan pellucida (ZP) and the development of second generation ZP vaccines. Reproduction 60, 9-18(2003).
  75. Kaul,G and Gandhi,K.K. (2003). 'Inhibition of sperm–zona pellucida binding by monoclonal antibodies to a glycoprotein family (ZP4) of porcine zona pellucida'. Small Ruminant Research 35, 149-156
  76. Kaul,G and Anand, S.R. (2003).Analysis of surface glycoproteins of buffalo spermatozoa' Asian Journal of Andrology 92, 31-37
  77. Kumar, P. and Atreja, S. K. (2003) Agonists dependent diacylglycerol generated in the plasma membrane and outer acrosomal membrane during in vitra capacitation and acrosome reaction of goat spermatozoa activates phopholipase A2.  J.   Nuclear Agric. Biol., 32(2): 99-107.
  78. Singh, R. and Kansal, V.K. (2003) Augmentation of immune response in mice fed with dahi, a fermented milk containing Leuconostoc citrovorum and Lactococcus lactis. Milkchwissenschaft (Germany) 58:480-482
  79. Sodhi, R. and Rajput, Y.S. (2003). A method for dialysis of samples in microlitre volumes. Ana. Biochem. 315: 141-142.
  80. Sood, S.K. and Sinha, P.R. (2003) Analysis of structure of YGNGV motif containing bacteriocins: A Model for membrane pore formation, Ind. J. Biotechnology, 2(2):227-235).
  81. Subjadra Priyadarshani and Kansal, V.K. (2003) Biochemical characterization of buffalo milk lysozyme. J. Dairy Res. (United Kingdom) 70:467-471
  82. Verma, N.K., Sodhi, R. and Rajput, Y.S. (2003). Anti-idiotypic antibodies against bovine growth hormone. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16: 732-737.

    Year 2002

  83. Kansal, V.K. (2002) Health benefit claims of dairy calcium-a review.  Indian J. Dairy Sci. 55:127-132.
  84. Kolli, D., and Rajput, Y.S. ( 2002). Effect of 65 kDa buffalo placental protein s on B-cell proliferation and antibody response. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15: 432-437.
  85. Manju, S. Dutta, S.M., Kapila, S and Tandon, H.K.L. (2002). Isolation and     characterization of antihypertensive peptides from casein. Indian J. Dairy Sci.      55(3):133-135.
  86. Prakash, P.,Sinha, P.R., Sinha R.N and Singh, B.(2002) Biochemical characterization of determinants responsible for the adhesion of gastrointestinal Lactobacilli to epithelial cells. Indian J. Dairy Science 55, 1-6.
  87. Prakash, P.,Sinha, P.R., Sinha R.N and Singh, B.(2002) Biochemical characterization of determinants responsible for the adhesion of gastrointestinal Lactobacilli to epithelial cells. Indian J. Dairy Science 55, 1-6.
  88. Prakash, P.,Sinha, P.R., Sinha R.N and Singh, B.(2002) Biochemical characterization of determinants responsible for the adhesion of gastrointestinal Lactobacilli to epithelial cells. Indian J. Dairy Science 55, 1-6.
  89. Subhadra Priyadarshani and Kansal, V. K. (2002) Purification, characterization, antibacterial activity and N-terminal sequencing of buffalo milk lysozyme. J. Dairy Res. (United Kingdom) 69:419-431.
  90. Taneja, R; Bansa, P; Sharma, M.K and Singh, D (2002) Albumin fractions from different species stimulates in Vitro progesterone production by granulosa cells. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 15, 1559-1563.
  91. Vorha, B. P. S., James, T. J., Sharma, S. P., Kansal, V. K., Chaudhary, A and Gupta, S. K. (2002) Dark neurons in ageing cerebellum: their mode of formation and effect. Biogerontology (Netherlands) 3(6) 347-354
Professional Societies located in the Division
Division of Animal Biochemistry is running local chapter of Society of Biological Chemists (India). Its convenor is Dr. V.K.Kansal and Secretary-cum treasurer is Dr. (Mrs) Suman Kapila. The chapter arranges scientific talk from renowned scientists form other scientific organizations.
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Teaching Activities
Courses offered with syllabus
Course structure-at a glance (Session 2009-2010)




First semester













Second semester
















Third and fourth semester







First semester
















Second semester
















Next four semesters




AB- 601          BASIC BIOCHEMISTRY                            3+1

To provide elementary knowledge/overview of structure and functions and metabolism of biomolecules.


Scope and importance of biochemistry in agriculture; fundamental principles governing life; structure of water; acid base concept and buffers; pH; hydrogen bonding; hydrophobic, electrostatic and Van der Waals forces; General introduction to techniques for determination of structure of bioplymers.

Classification, structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids and biomembranes.

Classification, structure, functions and mechanism of action of vitamins and harmones and enzymes. Vitamins as harmones. Principles of Bioenergenetics; concepts of entropy and free energy changes related to biological process.

Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation. Recombinant DNA Technology.


  1. Preparation of standard solutions.
  2. Preparation of buffer solutions.
  3. Extraction and estimation of Glucose by Nelson Somoygi Method.
  4. Estimation of Fructose using resorcinol.
  5. Estimation of Proteins by Lowry’s method.
  6. Estimation of DNA by Diphenylamine
  7. Estimation of RNA by orcinol.
  8. Estimation of Ascorbic acid using dye.
  9. Separation of lipids by silicic acid column chromatography.

Suggested Readings
Conn EE & Stumpf PK. 1987. Outlines of Biochemistry. John Wiley.Metzler DE. 2006. Biochemistry. Vols. I, II. Wiley International.
Nelson DL & Cox MM 2004. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 4th Ed. MacMillan.

Voet D, Voet JG & Pratt CW. 2007. Fundamentals of Biochemistry.John Wiley.

AB-603                       ENZYMOLOGY                                          2+1


Introduction and historical perspective, Enzyme nomenclature and IUPAC classification, enzyme compartmentalization in cell organelles, isolation, and purification of enzymes, measurement of enzyme activity. ribozymes, isozymes, abzymes, restriction endonucleases.
Enzyme structure, enzyme specificity, active site, active site mapping, mechanism of enzyme catalysis. cofactors, coenzymes- their structure and role.
Enzyme kinetics, enzyme inhibition and activation, multienzyme, complexes, allosteric enzymes and their kinetics, regulation of enzyme, activity. Monod Koshland Model
Isolation and purification of enzymes, Applications of enzymes in chemical and food industry, enzyme immobilization, biosensors and clinical applications of enzymes.


  1. Enzyme assay by taking any model enzyme like alpha-amylase or alkaline phosphatase.
  2. Isolation and purification of any model enzyme like B-galoctosidase or acid phosphatase.
  3. Study of the effect of enzyme and substrate concentrations and determination of Km and Vmax.
  4. Determination of pH and temperature optima of alkaline phospatase.
  5. To study the effect of various inhibitors of enyzymatic activity.
  6. Determination of the pH and temperature stability of alkaline phosphatase.

Suggested Readings
Bergmeyer HU. 1983. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Vol. II. Verlag Chemie, Academic Press.
Dixon M, Webb EC, Thorne CJR & Tipton KF. 1979. Enzymes. 3rd Ed. Longman.
Maragoni AG. 2003. Enzyme Kinetics - A Modern Approach. John Wiley.
Palmer T. 2001. Enzymes: Biochemistry, Biotechnology and ClinicalChemistry. 5th Ed. Horwood Publ.
Price NC & Stevens L. 2003. Fundamentals of Enzymology. Oxford Univ. Press.
Wilson K & Walker J. (Eds.). 2000. Principles and Techniques of Practical Biochemistry. 5th Ed. Cambridge Univ. Press.

AB-605           BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES                          3+1

To impart practical knowledge about various techniques used in purification and characterization and estimation of cellular constituents


Unit I
Spectroscopy: Principles and applications of UV, Visible, fluorescence, NMR, ESR. X-ray diffraction, mass spectrometry.
Unit II
Chromatographic Techniques: Principles and applications of chromatographic techniques viz., TLC, HPLC, GLC, ion-exchange, gel-filtration, affinity, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, metal chelate chromatography.
Unit III
Electrophoretic Techniques: Concepts in electrophoresis, PAGE, SDS-PAGE, molecular weight determination; isoelectrofocussing, 2D-PAGE, Agarose electrophoresis, Capillary Electrophoresis;
Unit IV
Principles and applications of Northern blot, Western Blot and Southern Blot:  ELISA, RIA, PCR. Protein sequencing
Unit V
Radiotracer Techniques: Concepts in radioactivity, radioactivity counting methods, Scintillation counting. Non-radioactive labelling.
1. Determination of absorption maxima and molar extinction coefficient of p-Nitrophenol from its absorption spectrum.
2. Effect of pH and solvent polarity on absorption spectrum of p-Nitrophenol.
3. Effect of slit width on absorption spectrum.
4. Estimation of proteins using Bradford/ BCA method
5. Separation of proteins and Mr Determination using SDS-PAGE.
6. Separation of Lipids using TLC
7. Separation of fatty acid methyl esters using GLC
8. Separation of proteins using gel filtration
9. Separation of proteins using Ion-exchange chromatography
10. Demonstration of HPLC for separation of Biomolecules


To impart knowledge regarding the biochemical aspects of various nutrients and  their interactions in foods during processing, storage and deterioration.


Fundamentals of human nutrition, concept of balanced diet, biochemical composition, energy and food value of foods with special reference to milk and dairy products. Physico-chemical, functional and nutritional characteristics of carbohydrates, proteins and fats and their interactions (emulsions, gelation, browning etc.). Nutritional quality and evaluation of nutritive value of proteins

Nutritional requirements for different age groups and physiological status, factors effecting nutritional requirements, Biochemical and nutritional aspects of vitamins, minerals. Nutraceuticals, antioxidants, food toxins, antinutritional factors, probiotics and cultured dairy products.

Carbohydrates with special references to nutritional importance of lactose and dietary fibers, Fats-types of fatty acids and their significance in obesity and cardiovascular diseases, role of calcium in hypertension, cancer and osteoporosis, Biological availability of calcium.
Effect of cooking, processing and preservation of different food products on nutrients, Biochemical aspect of post harvest storage specifically food spoilage. Enzymes in food industry, food additives (coloring agents, preservatives etc.), biogenesis of food flavours and aroma.

Suggested Readings

Alais C & Lindel G. 1995. Food Biochemistry. Amazon Springer.
DeMan JM. 1999. Principles of Food Chemistry. 3rd Ed. Springer.
Fennema OR. 1996. Food Chemistry. 3rd Ed. CRC Press.
Hulme AC. (Ed.). 1970. Biochemistry of Fruits and Vegetables and their Products. Vols.
I, II. Academic Press.
Ranganna S. (Ed.). 1986. Handbook of Analysis and Quality for Fruits andVegetable Products. Tata McGraw Hill.
Robinson DS. 1987. Food Biochemistry and Nutritional Value. Longman.
Swaminathan,M.S. Essentials of Foods and Nutrition VoL-l and II
Goodhart and Shils. Modem Nutrition in Health and Diseases
Wildwan and Mederios. Advanced Human Nutrition
Martin, East wood and Edenburg. Principles of Human Nutrition
Viswanath M. Sardesai.Introduction to Clinical Nutrition

IInd Semester

AB-602           INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM                     4+0

To teach metabolic pathways, their regulation, and methods used in their elucidation.


Introduction to metabolism, methods of studying metabolism, transport mechanism, bioenergetics, biological oxidation.
Catabolic and anabolic pathways of carbohydrates: glycolysis, citric acid cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, metabolism  of glycogen.

Fatty acid catabolism & biosynthesis, lipid biosynthesis, Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.

Degradative and biosynthetic pathways of amino acids. Degradation & biosynthesis of nucleotides. Photosynthesis, biological nitrogen fixation, sulphur cycle, Metabolic engineering concepts.

Compartmentation of metabolic pathways, regulation of different metabolic pathways, major metabolic disorders, Integration of metabolism, metabolic profiles of major organs, regulation of body mass, altered metabolism in starvation & diabetes mellitus

Suggested Readings
Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L & Clarke ND 2000. Biochemistry. 5th Ed. WH Freeman & Co.
Metzler DE. 2006. Biochemistry. Vols. I, II. John Wiley.
Voet D, Voet JG & Pratt CW. 2007. Fundamentals of Biochemistry. John,Wiley.
Zubey GL. 1998. Biochemistry. 4th Ed. WCB London.
Nelson DL & Cox MM 2005. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 4th Ed. WH Freeman & Co.

AB- 604           MOLECULAR BIOLOGY                                    3+1

To provide knowledge regarding genes, their functions, expression, regulation and transfer in heterologous systems.


Historical development of molecular biology, nucleic acids as genetic material, chemistry and structure of DNA and RNA, Genome organization in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, repetitive and non-repetitive DNA, satellite DNA; chromatin structure and function.
DNA replication, DNA polymerases, topoisomerases, DNA ligase, reverse transcriptase, RNA polymerases, transcription process, RNA editing, RNA processing. molecular mechanism of mutation.
Ribosomes structure and function, organization of ribosomal proteins genetic code, aminoacyl tRNA synthases’ inhibitors of replication, transcription and translation; translation and Post translational modification; nucleases and restriction enzymes, regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, translation in eukaryotes.
DNA sequencing, recombinant DNA technology, vectors, isolation of genes, recombinants vector, selection of recombinants, PCR and its variants; site directed mutagenesis, in vitro transcription, gene silencing


1. Isolation and purification of DNA
2. Isolation and purification of  RNA
3. Purity-check of isolated DNA and RNA
4. Restriction fragmentation of DNA and  agarose gel electrophoresis
5 RAPD analysis of DNA,
6. cDNA synthesis using PCR,
7. Plasmid isolation

AB-606           IMMUNOCHEMISTRY                                         2+1


To give an insight into the biochemical basis of immunity.


History and scope of immunology, cellular basis of immunity-adaptive and non-adaptive immunity, memory, specificity and diversity, self and non self discrimination, immune system, organs, tissues and cells, cell mediated vs humoral immunity, immunoglobulins, concept of antigen, immunogen, adjuvant, hapten
Classes of antibodies, Antibody diversity, theories of generation of antibody diversity, Monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies, Hybridoma, Recombinant antibodies, complement system- classical and alternate.
Cellular interactions in the immune response, affinity, avidity, B-cell and T-cell response, major histocompatibility complex, cell mediated immune response, cytokines, Vaccine.
Immunoregulation, immunological tolerance, hypersensitivity, innate resistance and specific immunity. Current immunological techniques Immunodiffusion, Immunoelectrophoresis, immunofluoresence, rocket electrophoresis, fluorescence-activated cell sorter.


1.Handling, inoculation and bleeding of laboratory animals,
2. Preparation of antigens and antisera
3.Separation of lymphocytes from blood, viable lymphocyte count,
5.Dectection of antibody by precipitation, agglutination, immunodiffusion,
7.Quantitation of immunoglobulins by zinc sulphate turbidity and by ELISA,
8.Selective salt fractionation of immunoglobulins and removal of salts from precipitated immunoglobulins using dialysis.
9. Characterization of immunoglobulins by PAGE.

Suggested Readings

Abbas AK & Lichtman AH. 2003. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. 5th
Ed. WB Saunders.
Goldsby RA, Kindt TJ & Osborne BA. 2003. Immunology. 4th Ed. WH
Harlow & Lane D. (Eds.) 1988. Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual. Cold
Spring Harbor Laboratory.
Kuby J.1996. Immunology. 3rd edition WH Freeman.
Male D, Brostoff J, Roth DB & Roitt I. 2006. Immunology. 7th Ed.Elsevier.
Ivn Roitt  (Eds.)  1997. Essential Immunology Publisher -Blackwell   Scientific Publication, Oxford
Van Oss. Immunochemistry
Manson, M.M.(Eds.) 1992. Immunochemical Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology Vol. 10- Humana Press Totowa, N.J.

AB-607           ANIMAL BIOCHEMISTRY                                  3+0


To impart knowledge regarding biochemistry of various physiological processes, specialized tissues and hormone action in animal system.



Digestion and absorption of food, Vitamins, Detoxification, Biochemistry of specialized tissues–connective tissue, skin, muscle, nervous tissue, blood and other body fluids, Biochemistry of Rumen functions.

Water, electrolyte and acid-base balance, Biochemistry of respiration, Structure, function and mechanism of action major trace elements.
Harmones of hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenals, gut, kidney and sex hormones. Membrane receptors of harmones.
Molecular mechanism of signal transduction path-ways; structure, function and regulation of production of male and female gametes; in vitro fertilization. Molecular mechanism of milk biosynthesis in mammary gland; Potent biological tissue effectors viz Eicosanoids, interleukins, interferons, bioactive peptides and growth factors. 

Suggested Readings

Devlin TM. 2006. Text Book of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations. 6th Ed. John Wiley.
Physiology of reproduction VolI.Ed. by E. Knobil and Niell, 1994.
Harper H.A 2000. Physiological Chemistry. MacMillan.

Buchanan BB, Gruissem W & Jones RL. 2000. Biochemistry and   Molecular Biology of Plants. 2nd Ed. John Wiley.

AB-691           MASTER’S SEMINAR                               1+0
AB- 699          MASTER’S RESEARCH                              20

Ph.D - Ist Semester

AB- 701                      ADVANCED ENZYMOLOGY                 2+0


To provide advanced knowledge about the models, mechanisms, kinetics, regulation and engineering of enzymes
Unit I

Various models for enzyme action, Enzyme catalysis in terms transition state theory, Active site titration, Identification of active site residues. Factors associated with catalytic efficiency: proximity and orientation, distortion and strain
Unit II

Pre-steady state kinetics, direct measurements of enzyme rate constants, continuous and stopped flow methods, relaxation techniques (pH jump, denaturation and temperature), kinetics for regulation of enzyme activity with allosteric effectors.
Unit III
Determination of energy of activation, Arrhenius equation, eyering equation. Determination of pKa, factors affecting pKa value. Determination of free energy, enthalpy and entropy of enzymatic reaction.  
Unit IV

Enzyme stabilization, bifunctional enzymes, enzymes from extremophiles. Enzyme catalysis in abnormal aqueous and non-aqueous environment. Enzyme engineering.
Suggested readings
1.Price NC & Stevens L. 2003. Fundamentals of Enzymology. Oxford Univ. Press.
2. Review articles from research journals


To impart latest information on the molecular biochemistry of isolation, transfer and expression of genes in plants and biochemical approaches employed in gene therapy.

Organization of prokaryotic genome, nuclear and organelle genes, concept of genome mapping and Organization, molecular evolution

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic gene regulation, RNA editing, Molecular Biology of viruses.

Methods of gene isolation and transfer in animals, molecular basis of male sterility, Applications of genetic engineering.

Site directed mutagenesis, gene targeting and gene therapy, bioethics and biosafety guidelines and IPR in recombinant DNA research.
Suggested Readings

Alberts B, Bray D, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K & Watson JD. 2006.
Molecular biology of the Cell. 6th Ed. Garland Publ.
Lewin B.2007. Gene IX. 9th Ed. Pearson Publ.
Selected articles from journals.

AB-705 FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS                                                                                                                                   2+0


To impart knowledge in the upcoming areas of biochemistry, and to acquaint the students with the recent developments of job opportunities in pharmaceutical and other industries.

Protein and nucleic acid sequencing: Various methods of sequencing including automated sequencing and microarrays, whole genome sequence,  co-regulated genes

Comparative genomics, functional genomics, transcriptomics and transcriptional network, gene identification, application of genomics, Quantitative PCR, SAGE, Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS),  Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE)/deep CAGE, Chip-Chip assay, epigenetic regulation

Proteome technology- 2D-PAGE, MSMS, MALDI-TOF, and Protein-protein interaction (Hybrid assay, DNA-Protein interaction and gene regulation (EMSA and Chip assay), comparative proteomics.
Metabolic pathway engineering, Metabolomic definition, Metabolic fingerprinting, Metbolomics library, Application of Metabolomics for Translational and Biological Research, Introduction to nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics,   

706          BIOMEMBRANES                                    2+0

To teach structure and functions of biomembranes, structure-function
relationships, membrane biogenesis.


Concept of biomembranes and their classification based on cellular organelles; physico-chemical properties of different biological and artificial membranes, cell surface receptors and antigen.
Membrane biogenesis and differentiation; membrane components-lipids, their distribution and organization; proteins, intrinsic and extrinsic, their arrangement; carbohydrates in membranes and their function.
Various membrane movements; transport across membrane and energy transduction.
Role of membrane in cellular metabolism, cell recognition and cell –to –cell interaction; signal transduction, recent trends and tools in membrane research.

Suggested Readings

Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SA, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D & Darnel J.
1999. Molecular Cell Biology. WH Freeman.
Nelson DL & Cox MM. 2000. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 3rd
Ed. Printed in India by Replika Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi for
Worth Publ., New York.
Smallwood M, Knox JP & Bowls BJ. 1996. Membranes: Specialized

Functions in Plants. Bros. Scientific Publ.

2nd Semester


Metabolism of Xenobiotics :Classification, properties and isoforms of  cytochrome P450; Phase I and Phase II reactions,

Oxidative stress and diseases : Biomarkers of oxidative stress , Adhesion, activation and respiratory burst by phagocytes , Molecular basis of hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cancer

Biochemical and genetic basis of disease: Monogenic and multifactorial disorders; Isolation of genes causing disease ; Human genome project and diseases;  Protein misfolding during diseases

Thermal & Cold tolerance: Molecular chaperones; Anti freeze proteins ; Heat and cold adaptive enzymes ; Biochemistry of animal hibernation ; Biochemistry of cryo protection

Cytotoxic and genotoxic assays; Bioindicators, Biomarkers and Biosensors
Suggested Readings

Functional metabolism : Regulation and Adaptation by Kenneth B. Storey
Harper’s Biochemistry 25th edition

AB-704           CURRENT TOPICS IN BIOCHEMISTRY         1+0


Tissue Culture: Setting up a cell culture laboratory; Principles of aseptic handling;, Cell line derivation; Cell freezing and quantitation; Contamination control; Cell freezing and thawings; Cell culture media constituents and their functions; Designing serum-free medium. Techniques for short-term and long-term culture of organs.
Enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA: Basic principle and methodology; Classification and types of ELISA; Preparation of enzyme-immune body conjugates and their purification; ELISA versus RIA techniques for assay of hormones.

Hybridoma techniques: Principle of development of hybrids producing monoclonal antibodies; Fusion of myeloma cells with antibody producing B cells; Selection, screening and cloning methods;  In vitro and in vivo  for production of monoclonal antibodies; Purification and characterization of monoclonal antibodies.
High performance liquid chromatography: Basic principle and  theory. Types of pumping systems and their essential features; Column packing; Detection systems,; Normal and modified stationary phases for adsorption, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography.
Affinity chromatography: Basic principle and theory;  matrices, spacer arms and ligands; Coupling gels; Group specific adsorbents; Preparation of different affinity media, Purification of biomolecules and applications.
Radiotracer techniques: Basic principles for use of radiotracers in study of biological processes; Ionization based radiotracer techniques- Principle and historical perspectives of proportional and Gieger Muller counters; Liquid scintillation counting (LSC): Principle, Instrumentation; and technique; Double isotope counting; Scintillation cocktails and function of its constituents; Tissue solublization and sample preparation; Quinching and quinch correction; Principle of gamma ray detection

Suggested Readings:

  1. Introduction to Radioimmunoassay and related techniques by T.Chard
  2. Enzyme Immunoassay by Edward T.Maggio.
  3. Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual Ed. By Harlow David Lane.
  4. Animal Cell culture: A Practical Approach by Freshney, R.I.
  5. Physical Biochemistry: Principles and Applications by David Sheehan.
  6. Instrumental Methods of Analysis by Willard et al.
  7. High Performance Liquid Chromatography by Heinz Engelhardt.

AB-708           ADVANCED BIOINFORMATICS                                2+0


Unit I
Databse Concepts, nucleic acid and protein sequence databases, Structuer databases, and integration of databases,

Unit II
Genome organization, human genome, livestock and bacterial genomes
Unit III
Computational gene discovery, pair wise & multiple sequence alignments, sequence similarity search, phylogenetic analysis
Unit IV
Prtoein Structure analysis, Protein Secondary structure prediction, Homology modeling Principles and Procedures, Protein-protein docking.

Suggested Readings

  1. Principles of Genome Analysis and Genomics (2003)
    S. B. Primrose and R.M. Twyman,  Blackwell Publishing
  2. Molecular Analysis and Genome Discovery (2004)
    Ralph Rapley and Stuart Harbron (Eds.), John Wiley and Sons
  3. BioInformatics (2001)
    Andreas D. Baxevanis and B. F. Francis Ouellette(Eds.)
    Wiley Interscience
  4. Proteins and Proteomics (2003)
    Richard J. Simpson, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
  5. Online Resources over the Internet

AB- 691          DOCTORAL SEMINAR I                                     1+0
AB- 692          DOCTORAL SEMINAR II                                    1+0
AB-699           DOCTORAL RESEARCH                                     45

Ongoing students’ research projects

PhD students

  1. Deepti Kaushal (2006-contonue). Effects of Acldophilus- plantarum probiotic dahi on biomarkers and expression of genes related to the process of ageing
  2. Dhiraj Mohania (2006-continue). Development of probiotic dahi using selected lactobacilli and its evaluation for neutraceutical attributes against colorecatal cancer and cardiovascular disease
  3. Sandeep Ghai. Functional characterization of tissue –specific cyp19 gene promoter at different stages of estrous cycle and pregnancy in buffalo.
  4. Tulika (  2006-continue ). Effectiveness of prebiotic carbohydrates in improvement of intestinal functions.
  5. Jitender (   2006-continue). Quantification of structure-activity relationship between pore forming antimicrobial peptide(s) and phospholipid bilayer".
  6. Jagan Mohanrao Gal (2006-continue ). Identification of capacitation associated tyrosine.
  7. Towseef R (2006-continue ). : Invitro studies on maintenance of sperm stem cells using carbon nanotubes


Number of Masters degrees awarded     49

Number of Doctoral degrees awarded   88

Faculty Profile
Dr. Dheer Singh Principal Scientist & Head
Dr. Gautam Kaul Principal Scientist
Dr. Rajeev Kapila Principal Scientist
Dr.(Mrs) Suman Kapila Principal Scientist
Dr. S.K.Sood Senior Scientist
Dr. Sunil Kumar Onteru Senior Scientist
Dr. Sunita Meena Scientist
Dr. Sadeesh E.M. Scientist
Dr. Vedamurthy G.V. Scientist
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