Origin and Distribution: north-west to Indus river basin and further to Indo-Gangetic plains and towards South along Godavari, Krishna and Pennar basins. The original breed is now confined to the tract between Paleru and Gundlakamn rivers in Prakasam district though the major breeding tract extends between Pennar, guntur and Godavari rivers. The original breeding tract consists of the erstwhile Ongole, Gunturj and Narasaraopet taluks, and parts of Sattena path, Vinukonda, Darsi and Kand taluks. The present breeding tract extends alt along the coast from Nellore to Vizianagaram, and Chittoor, Kurnool, Cuddapah, Anantapur Nalgonda, Mahabubnagar and Khammam districts of Andhra Pradesh.
Location and Topography: The latitudinal position of the area is approximately between 14° and 16° 50’ north and the longitudinal between 79°and 80°55’.
Soil: black cotton, red loamy and sandy loam.
Climate: The climate of the tract is dry and mild, and is not subject to sudden changes. Sea breeze makes the area near the coast generally cooler than the inland areas.
Average temperature: 18° to 40°C throughout the year.
Average rainfall : from 75 to 90 cm.
1)Colour: glossy white coat called padakateeru by the breeders. Males have dark grey markings on head, neck and hump, black points on knees and pasterns, black muzzle, black eye-lashes with a ring of black skin around eyes. Tips of ears and testes are black. Calves are generally white but sometimes are born with reddish-brown patches or reddish-brown colour. The glossy coat colour is due to the nature of the soil which is high in calcium, phosphorus and other elements.Ongoles are large and heavy animals with loosely knit frames, great muscularity and long limbs. Forehead is broad between eyes and slightly prominent. Face moderately long and coffin shaped. Bridge of nose is straight, slightly prominent with a shallow furrow. Muzzle is black with wide nostrils. Lower lip is also black.Horns are short and stumpy, growing outward and backward from the outer angles of the poll, thick at the base and firm without cracks. In cows, horns are longer and thinner than in bulls. Horns in cows generally extend outward, upward and inward. Neck is short and thick in males, and moderately long in females. Black hair on neck is present in males. Hump in males is well developed and erect, filled up on both sides and not concave or leaning to either side. Dewlap is large, fan-shaped, fleshy and slightly pendulous, and hanging in folds, extending up to navel flap. Dewlap is serrated with smooth flowing folds instead of narrow constrictions. Switch of tail is black and extends up to the middle of the distance from the point of hock to the ground level. In males, sheath is not pendulous, but is well tucked with thin black hair on tip. Testes are well- developed, covered with silky hair and with no fleshy patches and not too pendulous. In females, there is a flap of skin in the position of sheath. Udder is well formed with well-placed and well-developed teats. Hind portion of udder is well developed. Skin is smooth and is of medium thickness, mellow and loose. Hair are white, silky and fine.
Morphometric and Performance Parameters:
1)Body length, height and heart girth:
2)average: 171.1±0.95 (range 155 to 190 cm), 152.4±0.61 (range 140 to 165 cm) Males: 203.8±1.03 cm (range 186 to 230 cm) females 133.3±1.0, 133.5±0.7 and 166.0±1.2 cm.
3)Average birth weight:around 27 kg (range 24 to 30 kg).
4)Adult weight: from 545 to 615 kg in males and from 409 to 454 kg in females.
5)Age at first calving: ranges from 1,150 to 1,820 days (average 1,473 days).
6)Average milk yield: 688 kg (range 475 to 1,000 kg) in a lactation period of about 230 days (range 160 to 270 days). Average dry period: 262±13.74 days (range 145 to 400 days), average service period 191 days (range 128 to 310 days), average calving interval 500 days (range 420 to 720 days) and average fat is 4.2% (range 4.1 to 4.8%).
|Copyright © 2011 NDRI. All rights reserved. Copyright Policy Terms of Service
NOTICE: We collect personal information on this site.